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6,433 Research products

  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • arXiv.org e-Print Archive

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fahes, Mohammad; Kervazo, Christophe; Bobin, Jérôme; Tupin, Florence;

    Sparse Blind Source Separation (BSS) has become a well established tool for a wide range of applications - for instance, in astrophysics and remote sensing. Classical sparse BSS methods, such as the Proximal Alternating Linearized Minimization (PALM) algorithm, nevertheless often suffer from a difficult hyperparameter choice, which undermines their results. To bypass this pitfall, we propose in this work to build on the thriving field of algorithm unfolding/unrolling. Unrolling PALM enables to leverage the data-driven knowledge stemming from realistic simulations or ground-truth data by learning both PALM hyperparameters and variables. In contrast to most existing unrolled algorithms, which assume a fixed known dictionary during the training and testing phases, this article further emphasizes on the ability to deal with variable mixing matrices (a.k.a. dictionaries). The proposed Learned PALM (LPALM) algorithm thus enables to perform semi-blind source separation, which is key to increase the generalization of the learnt model in real-world applications. We illustrate the relevance of LPALM in astrophysical multispectral imaging: the algorithm not only needs up to $10^4-10^5$ times fewer iterations than PALM, but also improves the separation quality, while avoiding the cumbersome hyperparameter and initialization choice of PALM. We further show that LPALM outperforms other unrolled source separation methods in the semi-blind setting. Comment: 10th International Conference on Learning Representations, ICLR 2022. 21 pages

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Belle Collaboration; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Adamczyk, K.; +196 Authors

    We report the first measurement of the $D^{\ast -}$ meson polarization in the decay $B^0 \to D^{*-} \tau^+\nu_{\tau}$ using the full data sample of 772$\times 10^6$ $B\bar{B}$ pairs recorded with the Belle detector at the KEKB electron-positron collider. Our result, $F_L^{D^\ast} = 0.60 \pm 0.08 ({\rm stat}) \pm 0.04 ({\rm sys})$, where $F_L^{D^\ast}$ denotes the $D^{\ast-}$ meson longitudinal polarization fraction, agrees within about $1.7$ standard deviations of the standard model prediction. Comment: 16 pages, 4 figures, CKM 2018

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    Authors: Savary, E.; Rojas, K.; Maus, M.; Clement, B.; +15 Authors

    We present a search for galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses in the initial 2 500 square degrees of the Canada-France Imaging Survey (CFIS). We designed a convolutional neural network (CNN) committee that we applied to a selection of 2 344 002 exquisite-seeing $r$-band images of color-selected luminous red galaxies (LRGs). Our classification uses a realistic training set where the lensing galaxies and the lensed sources are both taken from real data, namely the CFIS $r$-band images themselves and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A total of 9 460 candidates obtain a score above 0.5 with the CNN committee. After a visual inspection of the candidates, we find a total of 133 lens candidates, of which 104 are completely new. The set of false positives mainly contains ring, spiral, and merger galaxies, and to a lesser extent galaxies with nearby companions. We classify 32 of the lens candidates as secure lenses and 101 as maybe lenses. For the 32 highest quality lenses, we also fit a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass profile with external shear along with an elliptical Sersic profile for the lens and source light. This automated modeling step provides distributions of properties for both sources and lenses that have Einstein radii in the range $0.5\arcsec<θ_E<2.5\arcsec$. Finally, we introduce a new lens and/or source single-band deblending algorithm based on auto-encoder representation of our candidates. This is the first time an end-to-end lens-finding and modeling pipeline is assembled together, in view of future lens searches in a single band, as will be possible with Euclid. 29 pages, 21 figures, accepted by A&A, in press

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Other literature type . 2021
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2021
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Other literature type . 2021
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Saurav Jha; Akhilesh Sudhakar; Anil Kumar Singh;

    Out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words can pose serious challenges for machine translation (MT) tasks, and in particular, for low-resource language (LRL) pairs, i.e., language pairs for which few or no parallel corpora exist. Our work adapts variants of seq2seq models to perform transduction of such words from Hindi to Bhojpuri (an LRL instance), learning from a set of cognate pairs built from a bilingual dictionary of Hindi--Bhojpuri words. We demonstrate that our models can be effectively used for language pairs that have limited parallel corpora; our models work at the character level to grasp phonetic and orthographic similarities across multiple types of word adaptations, whether synchronic or diachronic, loan words or cognates. We describe the training aspects of several character level NMT systems that we adapted to this task and characterize their typical errors. Our method improves BLEU score by 6.3 on the Hindi-to-Bhojpuri translation task. Further, we show that such transductions can generalize well to other languages by applying it successfully to Hindi -- Bangla cognate pairs. Our work can be seen as an important step in the process of: (i) resolving the OOV words problem arising in MT tasks, (ii) creating effective parallel corpora for resource-constrained languages, and (iii) leveraging the enhanced semantic knowledge captured by word-level embeddings to perform character-level tasks. Comment: 47 pages, 4 figures, 21 tables (including Appendices)

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    Journal of Language Modelling
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Journal of Language Modelling
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    Other literature type . 2019
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2018
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      Journal of Language Modelling
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Language Modelling
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    Authors: Arvind Balachandrasekaran; Merry Mani; Mathews Jacob;

    We introduce a structured low rank algorithm for the calibration-free compensation of field inhomogeneity artifacts in Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) MRI data. We acquire the data using two EPI readouts that differ in echo-time (TE). Using time segmentation, we reformulate the field inhomogeneity compensation problem as the recovery of an image time series from highly undersampled Fourier measurements. The temporal profile at each pixel is modeled as a single exponential, which is exploited to fill in the missing entries. We show that the exponential behavior at each pixel, along with the spatial smoothness of the exponential parameters, can be exploited to derive a 3D annihilation relation in the Fourier domain. This relation translates to a low rank property on a structured multi-fold Toeplitz matrix, whose entries correspond to the measured k-space samples. We introduce a fast two-step algorithm for the completion of the Toeplitz matrix from the available samples. In the first step, we estimate the null space vectors of the Toeplitz matrix using only its fully sampled rows. The null space is then used to estimate the signal subspace, which facilitates the efficient recovery of the time series of images. We finally demonstrate the proposed approach on spherical MR phantom data and human data and show that the artifacts are significantly reduced. The proposed approach could potentially be used to compensate for time varying field map variations in dynamic applications such as functional MRI.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2018
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2018
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      IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Picard, Sylvaine; Chapdelaine, Camille; Cappi, Cyril; Gardes, Laurent; +3 Authors

    In this paper, we address the problem of dataset quality in the context of Machine Learning (ML)-based critical systems. We briefly analyse the applicability of some existing standards dealing with data and show that the specificities of the ML context are neither properly captured nor taken into ac-count. As a first answer to this concerning situation, we propose a dataset specification and verification process, and apply it on a signal recognition system from the railway domain. In addi-tion, we also give a list of recommendations for the collection and management of datasets. This work is one step towards the dataset engineering process that will be required for ML to be used on safety critical systems.

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/issrew...
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    Authors: Lim, Soon Hoe; Wan, Yijun; Şimşekli, Umut;

    Recent studies have shown that gradient descent (GD) can achieve improved generalization when its dynamics exhibits a chaotic behavior. However, to obtain the desired effect, the step-size should be chosen sufficiently large, a task which is problem dependent and can be difficult in practice. In this study, we incorporate a chaotic component to GD in a controlled manner, and introduce multiscale perturbed GD (MPGD), a novel optimization framework where the GD recursion is augmented with chaotic perturbations that evolve via an independent dynamical system. We analyze MPGD from three different angles: (i) By building up on recent advances in rough paths theory, we show that, under appropriate assumptions, as the step-size decreases, the MPGD recursion converges weakly to a stochastic differential equation (SDE) driven by a heavy-tailed L\'evy-stable process. (ii) By making connections to recently developed generalization bounds for heavy-tailed processes, we derive a generalization bound for the limiting SDE and relate the worst-case generalization error over the trajectories of the process to the parameters of MPGD. (iii) We analyze the implicit regularization effect brought by the dynamical regularization and show that, in the weak perturbation regime, MPGD introduces terms that penalize the Hessian of the loss function. Empirical results are provided to demonstrate the advantages of MPGD. Comment: 24 pages, accepted at NeurIPS 2022

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    Authors: Jose Gomez-Tames; Ilkka Laakso; Akimasa Hirata;

    Abstract Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique for noninvasively stimulating a brain area for therapeutic, rehabilitation treatments and neuroscience research. Despite our understanding of the physical principles and experimental developments pertaining to TMS, it is difficult to identify the exact brain target as the generated electric field exhibits a non-uniform distribution owing to the complicated and subject-dependent brain anatomy and the lack of biomarkers that can quantify the effects of TMS in most cortical areas. Computational dosimetry has progressed significantly and enables TMS assessment by computation of the induced electric field (the primary physical agent known to activate the brain neurons) in a digital representation of the human head. In this review, TMS dosimetry studies are summarised, clarifying the importance of the anatomical and human biophysical parameters and computational methods. This review shows that there is a high consensus on the importance of a detailed cortical folding representation and an accurate modelling of the surrounding cerebrospinal fluid. Recent studies have also enabled the prediction of individually optimised stimulation based on magnetic resonance imaging of the patient/subject and have attempted to understand the temporal effects of TMS at the cellular level by incorporating neural modelling. These efforts, together with the fast deployment of personalised TMS computations, will permit the adoption of TMS dosimetry as a standard procedure in medical applications.

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    Authors: Alain Durmus; Andreas Eberle; Arnaud Guillin; Katharina Schuh;

    We develop a new approach to study the long time behaviour of solutions to nonlinear stochastic differential equations in the sense of McKean, as well as propagation of chaos for the corresponding mean-field particle system approximations. Our approach is based on a sticky coupling between two solutions to the equation. We show that the distance process between the two copies is dominated by a solution to a one-dimensional nonlinear stochastic differential equation with a sticky boundary at zero. This new class of equations is then analyzed carefully. In particular, we show that the dominating equation has a phase transition. In the regime where the Dirac measure at zero is the only invariant probability measure, we prove exponential convergence to equilibrium both for the one-dimensional equation, and for the original nonlinear SDE. Similarly, propagation of chaos is shown by a componentwise sticky coupling and comparison with a system of one dimensional nonlinear SDEs with sticky boundaries at zero. The approach applies to equations without confinement potential and to interaction terms that are not of gradient type. 46 pages

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    Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Analysis and Computations
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      Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Analysis and Computations
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    Authors: Bourdache, Nadjet; Perny, Patrice; Spanjaard, Olivier;

    We introduce a new incremental preference elicitation procedure able to deal with noisy responses of a Decision Maker (DM). The originality of the contribution is to propose a Bayesian approach for determining a preferred solution in a multiobjective decision problem involving a combinatorial set of alternatives. We assume that the preferences of the DM are represented by an aggregation function whose parameters are unknown and that the uncertainty about them is represented by a density function on the parameter space. Pairwise comparison queries are used to reduce this uncertainty (by Bayesian revision). The query selection strategy is based on the solution of a mixed integer linear program with a combinatorial set of variables and constraints, which requires to use columns and constraints generation methods. Numerical tests are provided to show the practicability of the approach.

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    Authors: Fahes, Mohammad; Kervazo, Christophe; Bobin, Jérôme; Tupin, Florence;

    Sparse Blind Source Separation (BSS) has become a well established tool for a wide range of applications - for instance, in astrophysics and remote sensing. Classical sparse BSS methods, such as the Proximal Alternating Linearized Minimization (PALM) algorithm, nevertheless often suffer from a difficult hyperparameter choice, which undermines their results. To bypass this pitfall, we propose in this work to build on the thriving field of algorithm unfolding/unrolling. Unrolling PALM enables to leverage the data-driven knowledge stemming from realistic simulations or ground-truth data by learning both PALM hyperparameters and variables. In contrast to most existing unrolled algorithms, which assume a fixed known dictionary during the training and testing phases, this article further emphasizes on the ability to deal with variable mixing matrices (a.k.a. dictionaries). The proposed Learned PALM (LPALM) algorithm thus enables to perform semi-blind source separation, which is key to increase the generalization of the learnt model in real-world applications. We illustrate the relevance of LPALM in astrophysical multispectral imaging: the algorithm not only needs up to $10^4-10^5$ times fewer iterations than PALM, but also improves the separation quality, while avoiding the cumbersome hyperparameter and initialization choice of PALM. We further show that LPALM outperforms other unrolled source separation methods in the semi-blind setting. Comment: 10th International Conference on Learning Representations, ICLR 2022. 21 pages

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    Authors: Belle Collaboration; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Adamczyk, K.; +196 Authors

    We report the first measurement of the $D^{\ast -}$ meson polarization in the decay $B^0 \to D^{*-} \tau^+\nu_{\tau}$ using the full data sample of 772$\times 10^6$ $B\bar{B}$ pairs recorded with the Belle detector at the KEKB electron-positron collider. Our result, $F_L^{D^\ast} = 0.60 \pm 0.08 ({\rm stat}) \pm 0.04 ({\rm sys})$, where $F_L^{D^\ast}$ denotes the $D^{\ast-}$ meson longitudinal polarization fraction, agrees within about $1.7$ standard deviations of the standard model prediction. Comment: 16 pages, 4 figures, CKM 2018

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