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  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2019-2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J. B. Vielfaure; S. D. Vergani; J. Japelj; Johan P. U. Fynbo; +22 Authors

    Context. The identification of the sources that reionized the Universe and their specific contribution to this process are key missing pieces of our knowledge of the early Universe. Faint star-forming galaxies may be the main contributors to the ionizing photon budget during the epoch of reionization, but their escaping photons cannot be detected directly due to inter-galactic medium opacity. Hence, it is essential to characterize the properties of faint galaxies with significant Lyman continuum (LyC) photon leakage up to z ∼ 4 to define indirect indicators allowing analogs to be found at the highest redshift. Aims. Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) typically explode in star-forming regions of faint, star-forming galaxies. Through LGRB afterglow spectroscopy it is possible to detect directly LyC photons. Our aim is to use LGRBs as tools to study LyC leakage from faint, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Methods. Here we present the observations of LyC emission in the afterglow spectra of GRB 191004B at z = 3.5055, together with those of the other two previously known LyC-leaking LGRB host galaxies (GRB 050908 at z = 3.3467, and GRB 060607A at z = 3.0749), to determine their LyC escape fraction and compare their properties. Results. From the afterglow spectrum of GRB 191004B we determine a neutral hydrogen column density at the LGRB redshift of log(NH I/cm−2) = 17.2 ± 0.15, and negligible extinction (AV = 0.03 ± 0.02 mag). The only metal absorption lines detected are C IV and Si IV. In contrast to GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A, the host galaxy of GRB 191004B displays significant Lyman-alpha (Lyα) emission. From its Lyα emission and the non-detection of Balmer emission lines we constrain its star-formation rate (SFR) to 1 ≤ SFR ≤ 4.7 M⊙ yr−1. We fit the Lyα emission with a shell model and find parameters values consistent with the observed ones. The absolute (relative) LyC escape fractions we find for GRB 191004B, GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A are of 0.35−0.11+0.10 (0.43−0.13+0.12), 0.08−0.04+0.05 (0.08−0.04+0.05) and 0.20−0.05+0.05 (0.45−0.15+0.15), respectively. We compare the LyC escape fraction of LGRBs to the values of other LyC emitters found from the literature, showing that LGRB afterglows can be powerful tools to study LyC escape for faint high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Indeed we could push LyC leakage studies to much higher absolute magnitudes. The host galaxies of the three LGRBs presented here have all M1600 > −19.5 mag, with the GRB 060607A host at M1600 > −16 mag. LGRB hosts may therefore be particularly suitable for exploring the ionizing escape fraction in galaxies that are too faint or distant for conventional techniques. Furthermore, the time involved is minimal compared to galaxy studies. © J.-B. Vielfaure et al. 2020 This work is part of the BEaPro project (PI: S.D. Vergani) funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-16-CE31-0003). We thank Giancarlo Ghirlanda for providing useful information. JBV and SDV thank Anne Verhamme for useful discussions. SDV acknowledges financial support from the French Space Agency (CNES). MG was supported by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51409 and acknowledges support from HST grants HST-GO-15643.017-A, HST-AR-15039.003-A, and XSEDE grant TG-AST180036. The Cosmic DAWN center is funded by the DNRF. JPUF thanks the Carlsberg foundation for support. DBM acknowledges support from VILLUM FONDEN research grant 19054. NRT acknowledges support from STFC via grant ST/N000757/1. DAK acknowledges support from Spanish research project RTI2018-098104-J-I00 (GRBPhot). The PanSTARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project O ffice, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium).Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. The NumPy (van der Walt et al. 2011), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020) and matplotlib (Hunter 2007) packages have been extensively used for the preparation and presentation of this work. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Peer reviewed

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Radboud Repository
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    Authors: Nicol, Edith; Xu, Yao; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Kinani, Said; +2 Authors

    RationaleHigh‐resolution mass spectrometry based non‐targeted screening has a huge potential for applications in environmental sciences, engineering and regulation. However, it produces large datasets for which full appropriate processing is a real challenge; the development of processing software is the last building‐block to enable large‐scale use of this approach.MethodsA new software application, SPIX, has been developed to extract relevant information from high‐resolution mass spectral datasets. Dealing with intrinsic sample variability and reducing operator subjectivity, it opens up opportunities and promising prospects in many areas of analytical chemistry. SPIX is freely available at: http://spix.webpopix.org.ResultsTwo features of the software are presented in the field of environmental analysis. An example illustrates how SPIX reveals photodegradation reactions in wastewater by fitting kinetic models to significant changes in ion abundance over time. A second example shows the ability of SPIX to detect photoproducts at trace amounts in river water, through comparison of datasets from samples taken before and after irradiation.ConclusionsSPIX has shown its ability to reveal relevant modifications between two series of large datasets, allowing, for instance, the study of the consequences of a given event on a complex substrate. Most of all – and it is to our knowledge the only software currently available allowing this – it can reveal and monitor any kind of reaction in all types of mixture.

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    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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      Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: M. Di Lorenzo; Pierre Brequigny; Fabrice Foucher; Christine Mounaïm-Rousselle;

    International audience; Among the technological solutions proposed to reduce air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions, the so-called “downsizing” operating mode for internal combustion engines is considered one of the most promising. By boosting the intake air pressure, this operating mode achieves higher efficiency, thus reducing pollutant emissions. Modelling the combustion process in these drastic conditions (high pressure, high temperature and high dilution rate) remains challenging, however, as classical models of premixed turbulent combustion prove insufficiently robust. The present work presents, characterizes and validates a dedicated apparatus based on the innovative new one shot engine (NOSE) to investigate turbulent premixed flames under these drastic conditions. The great flexibility of NOSE can generate different internal flow aerodynamic conditions as well as temperature and pressure values, up to a turbulent intensity of 3.3 m/s at 21 bar and 585 K, so at a Ka number ~ 10, with a characteristic integral length of 2 mm. The first milestones of the present work focus on the aerodynamic characterization of NOSE with different ad-hoc studied configurations. The validation of the setup is supported by some examples of the combustion tests performed.

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    Flow Turbulence and Combustion
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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2019
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      Flow Turbulence and Combustion
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Travis Beckwith; Kim M. Cecil; Mekibib Altaye; Rachel Severs; +7 Authors

    Early life exposure to air pollution poses a significant risk to brain development from direct exposure to toxicants or via indirect mechanisms involving the circulatory, pulmonary or gastrointestinal systems. In children, exposure to traffic related air pollution has been associated with adverse effects on cognitive, behavioral and psychomotor development. We aimed to determine whether childhood exposure to traffic related air pollution is associated with regional differences in brain volume and cortical thickness among children enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study of traffic related air pollution and child health. We used magnetic resonance imaging to obtain anatomical brain images from a nested subset of 12 year old participants characterized with either high or low levels of traffic related air pollution exposure during their first year of life. We employed voxel-based morphometry to examine group differences in regional brain volume, and with separate analyses, changes in cortical thickness. Smaller regional gray matter volumes were determined in the left pre- and post-central gyri, the cerebellum, and inferior parietal lobe of participants in the high traffic related air pollution exposure group relative to participants with low exposure. Reduced cortical thickness was observed in participants with high exposure relative to those with low exposure, primarily in sensorimotor regions of the brain including the pre- and post-central gyri and the paracentral lobule, but also within the frontal and limbic regions. These results suggest that significant childhood exposure to traffic related air pollution is associated with structural alterations in brain.

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    PLoS ONE
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    Authors: Khuntia, J,; Proust, Sébastien; Khatua, K,;

    International audience; We report here a laboratory study on the effects of bed roughness and emergent rigid veg-etation on the unsteady flows associated with flash floods and extreme flood events. The flow structure of unsteady open-channel flows over rough bed with and without emergent rigid vegetation has been investigated in an 18m long and 3m wide laboratory flume. Steady uniform flows were also studied and served as reference flows. For both steady and unsteady flows, two geometries are tested: (1) uniform bed roughness (uniform dense synthetic grass modelling meadow) along the flume and (2) a uniform staggered distribu-tion of emergent wooden circular cylinders (model of rigid vegetation) set on the bed roughness. Transient flow depths are simultaneously measured at six longitudinal positions using ultra-sonic sensors. Transient velocities are measured at one longitudinal position over the water column using a side looking ADV probe to estimate depth-averaged veloci-ty. In order to compute ensemble averages of the flow parameters, 109 runs of the same hydrograph are carried out repeatedly at the flume entrance. Two consecutive runs are separated by a base flow. The ensemble averages of the measured discharge, flow depths and velocity are found to be converged after 72 runs. For the two geometries: at the peak flow of the hydrograph, the vertical profiles of mean streamwise velocity and horizontal Reynolds shear stress are comparable to the profiles obtained for steady uniform cases of same flow depth; and accelerated and decelerated velocity profiles are obtained during the rising limb and falling limb of the hydrograph, respectively. Reynolds shear stresses are also found to be higher during the rising limb than during the falling limb for a fixed flow depth. The hysteresis in the depth-averaged velocity / flow depth relationships is compa-rable in shape and size for the two geometries highlighting the weak effect of the rigid vegetation compared to the effects of un-stationarity.

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    https://doi.org/10.1201/b22619...
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    Authors: Lesueur, Didier; Metais, Pierre; Pibis, Patrick; El Bedoui, Samyr; +3 Authors

    RILEM International Symposium on Bituminous Materials, ISBM Lyon 2020, LYON, FRANCE, 14-/12/2020 - 16/12/2020; Although known for a long time, hydrated lime (HL) still attracts a strong technical interest as an asphalt additive. This presentation describes recent field results obtained in France in two dif-ferent contexts: - First, we describe the 7-yrs experience obtained on 20 sections with and without HL in the mountainous Vosges department. This eastern part of France is characterized by cold winters and significant elevation, making it a pretty challenging environment for asphalt mixtures. The types of mixtures were essentially semi-dense Asphalt Concrete (French BBSG). The results after 7-yrs of monitoring are described. - Second, we describe the 5-yrs experience obtained on 5 sections with and without HL in the oceanic climate of Highway A84 in Normandy. The types of mixtures were also semi-dense Asphalt Concrete (French BBSG) and a thorough testing program was established from the beginning. The results after 5-yrs of monitoring are described. As a result, the results allow quantifying the impact of HL in terms of dura-bility improvement.

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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Marc Corbeels; Rémi Cardinael; Krishna Naudin; Hervé Guibert; +1 Authors

    Abstract The 4‰ initiative launched by the French government at COP21 in Paris in December 2015 aspires to increase global soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks at a rate of 0.4% per year. We conducted a systematic literature review on SOC storage under agroforestry and conservation agriculture systems in sub-Saharan Africa, where we reported 66 and 33 cases for both systems respectively. The results showed that SOC storage rates were significantly higher than 4‰ yr−1 in fallows and in multistrata agroforestry systems (P = 0.0001 and 0.0178, respectively), but not in alley cropping and parklands systems. For conservation agriculture, SOC storage rates were only significantly higher than 4‰ yr−1 (P = 0.0438) when all three principles were applied, i.e. no- or minimum tillage combined with crop residue retention and intercropping or rotation. The data showed very large variability in SOC storage rates as the result of various factors, including previous land-use history, experimental set up and approach used to determine SOC storage (diachronic versus synchronic approach), soil type, depth of soil sampling, type of crops and management, and duration of the experiment. SOC storage rates significantly decreased with time in the agroforestry systems (P = 0.0328). However, we were unable to find significant relationships with initial SOC stocks or tree density. Given the limited published data and the high variability in results, no significant relationships between SOC storage rates and site variables were found for conservation agriculture. We argue that there is a potential for SOC storage in agricultural soils of sub-Saharan Africa, as illustrated by SOC gaps observed on smallholder farms. Low SOC levels are, however, to a great extent the result of limited resources of most smallholder farmers. Practices such as agroforestry and conservation agriculture can restore SOC in these soils, but the 4‰ initiative has to be implemented on the grounds of the positive impact on crop productivity rather than on climate change mitigation. The efficiency in doing so will depend on the specific situations and will need economic support to smallholder farmers, including the promotion of good markets for sale of extra produce and for input supply, effective private support and policy, such as credit schemes and subsidies for inputs, and efficient extension services which incentivize farmers to invest in new technologies.

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    Soil and Tillage Research
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Soil and Tillage Research
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    Authors: Gerardo I. Zardi; Jonathan Monsinjon; Christopher D. McQuaid; Laurent Seuront; +4 Authors

    Temperature extremes are predicted to intensify with climate change. These extremes are rapidly emerging as a powerful driver of species distributional changes with the capacity to disrupt the functioning and provision of services of entire ecosystems, particularly when they challenge ecosystem engineers. The subsequent search for a robust framework to forecast the consequences of these changes mostly ignores within-species variation in thermal sensitivity. Such variation can be intrinsic, but can also reflect species interactions. Intertidal mussels are important ecosystem engineers that host symbiotic endoliths in their shells. These endoliths unexpectedly act as conditionally beneficial parasites that enhance the host's resistance to intense heat stress. To understand how this relationship may be altered under environmental change, we examined the conditions under which it becomes advantageous by reducing body temperature. We deployed biomimetic sensors (robomussels), built using shells of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) that were or were not infested by endoliths, at nine European locations spanning a temperature gradient across 22 degrees of latitude (Orkney, Scotland to the Algarve, Portugal). Daily wind speed and solar radiation explained the maximum variation in the difference in temperature between infested and non-infested robomussels; the largest difference occurred under low wind speed and high solar radiation. From the robomussel data, we inferred body temperature differences between infested and non-infested mussels during known heatwaves that induced mass mortality of the mussel Mytilus edulis along the coast of the English Channel in summer 2018 to quantify the thermal advantage of endolith infestation during temperature extremes. Under these conditions, endoliths provided thermal buffering of between 1.7 degrees C and 4.8 degrees C. Our results strongly suggest that sustainability of intertidal mussel beds will increasingly depend on the thermal buffering provided by endoliths. More generally, this work shows that biomimetic models indicate that within-species thermal sensitivity to global warming can be modulated by species interactions, using an intertidal host-symbiont relationship as an example. Fundacao para a Ciencia e TecnologiaPortuguese Foundation for Science and TechnologyEuropean Commission [UIDB/04326/2020]; National Research Foundation of South AfricaNational Research Foundation - South Africa [64801]; Department of Science and TechnologyDepartment of Science & Technology (India); National FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF); South African National Research FoundationNational Research Foundation - South Africa; French Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche; Hauts de France RegionRegion Hauts-de-France; European Funds for Regional Economical Development info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    Other literature type . Article . 2021
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    Authors: Emmanuel Dartois; François Langlet;

    International audience; Hydrocarbons such as methane and ethane are present in many solar system objects, including comets, moons and planets. The interaction of these hydrocarbons with water ice at low temperatures could lead to the formation of inclusion compounds, such as clathrate hydrates (water based host cages trapping hydrocarbons guest molecules), modifying their retention, stability and therefore evolution. The occurrence of =clathrate hydrates on solar system surfaces could be established by remote sensing of their spectroscopic signatures. In this study, we measure and analyse ethane clathrate hydrate spectra recorded in the temperature range from 5.3 to 160K, covering most of the temperature range of interest for solar system objects. Specific infrared band signatures are identified for the ethane encaged guest. We provide evidence that ethane clathrate hydrate outcrops can be detected by remote sensing on the surface of planetary bodies.

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    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Payri, Claude; Allain, Valérie; Aucan, Jérôme; David, Corinne; +7 Authors

    International audience; New Caledonia archipelago is located in the South West Pacific between Australia and the Vanuatu archipelago. The land covers 19,100 km2, and the EEZ and territorial waters extend to 1,450,000 km2. The main island, Grande Terre, is surrounded by a barrier reef of 1100 km length enclosing a large lagoon of 24,000 km2 and up to 60 m deep. The complexity of the maritime environment is controlled by both the westward South Equatorial Current and the border currents induced by its deflection against the islands. The climate is driven by the South Pacific Convergence Zone and fluctuates with ENSO events. Although rare, cyclones are a significant climatic risk in the country. Shallow coastal habitats consist of rich and diverse coral reef habitats and associated ecosystems including mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, macroalgal beds, and lagoonal soft bottoms which house tens of thousands of species. New Caledonia has low population densities (15 km− 2) and small urbanized areas. Most of the people live on the coast with two-thirds in the Greater Nouméa area. Despite the relatively low anthropogenic pressure on marine ecosystems, the development of mining industries is driving a range of environmental impacts and their associated ecological consequences. Subsidence fishing and agricultural activities are traditionally important for rural people. However, practices have changed considerably with the development of recreational fishing and with offshore fisheries with industrial long-lining. After attempts at seafood aquaculture (shrimps, oysters), a recent diversification is toward high-value marine resources (sea cucumber, microalgae). Maritime traffic including the cruise tourism industry has expanded by 10% over recent decades, requiring improvements of port infrastructure. Numerous regulations have been enacted for protection and conservation of marine species, areas, and habitats under the responsibility of provincial and government authorities. Two significant steps have been taken with the inscription in the World Heritage listing of half of the reefs and lagoonal areas and the creation of the Coral Sea Natural Park that represents 78% of France’s MPAs. This should help in maintaining the good environmental condition of the maritime areas of New Caledonia.

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    Other literature type . 2019
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J. B. Vielfaure; S. D. Vergani; J. Japelj; Johan P. U. Fynbo; +22 Authors

    Context. The identification of the sources that reionized the Universe and their specific contribution to this process are key missing pieces of our knowledge of the early Universe. Faint star-forming galaxies may be the main contributors to the ionizing photon budget during the epoch of reionization, but their escaping photons cannot be detected directly due to inter-galactic medium opacity. Hence, it is essential to characterize the properties of faint galaxies with significant Lyman continuum (LyC) photon leakage up to z ∼ 4 to define indirect indicators allowing analogs to be found at the highest redshift. Aims. Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) typically explode in star-forming regions of faint, star-forming galaxies. Through LGRB afterglow spectroscopy it is possible to detect directly LyC photons. Our aim is to use LGRBs as tools to study LyC leakage from faint, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Methods. Here we present the observations of LyC emission in the afterglow spectra of GRB 191004B at z = 3.5055, together with those of the other two previously known LyC-leaking LGRB host galaxies (GRB 050908 at z = 3.3467, and GRB 060607A at z = 3.0749), to determine their LyC escape fraction and compare their properties. Results. From the afterglow spectrum of GRB 191004B we determine a neutral hydrogen column density at the LGRB redshift of log(NH I/cm−2) = 17.2 ± 0.15, and negligible extinction (AV = 0.03 ± 0.02 mag). The only metal absorption lines detected are C IV and Si IV. In contrast to GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A, the host galaxy of GRB 191004B displays significant Lyman-alpha (Lyα) emission. From its Lyα emission and the non-detection of Balmer emission lines we constrain its star-formation rate (SFR) to 1 ≤ SFR ≤ 4.7 M⊙ yr−1. We fit the Lyα emission with a shell model and find parameters values consistent with the observed ones. The absolute (relative) LyC escape fractions we find for GRB 191004B, GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A are of 0.35−0.11+0.10 (0.43−0.13+0.12), 0.08−0.04+0.05 (0.08−0.04+0.05) and 0.20−0.05+0.05 (0.45−0.15+0.15), respectively. We compare the LyC escape fraction of LGRBs to the values of other LyC emitters found from the literature, showing that LGRB afterglows c