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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Djeraba, A.; Musset, Eugène; van Rooijen, N.; Quéré, Pascale, P.;

    The metabolic NO pathway, catalyzed by the enzyme NO synthase in macrophages, is a key defense element against viruses and tumors. However, arginase is an other enzyme able to metabolize the substrate L-arginine, and the two enzymes are alternatively regulated by Th1 and Th2 cytokines in murine macrophages. Marek's disease is characterized by strong immunosuppression and development of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Inoculation of the very virulent strain of MDV RB-1B induced strong and long-lasting arginase macrophage-dependent activity, which was inhibited by L-norvaline in vitro, but induced low NO production in monocytes and splenocytes from highly susceptible B(13)/B(13) chickens. By contrast, in B(21)/B(21) chickens genetically resistant to tumor development, RB-1B induced a weak and transient increase in arginase activity and strong NO production. The vaccinal HVT strain did not induce any arginase activity in monocytes or splenocytes. Moreover, vaccination with HVT prevented tumor appearance after RB-1B challenge and increase in arginase activity, but favored NO production in susceptible chickens. Differential expression of NO synthase and arginase was modulated in chicken macrophages, with IFN-gamma and LPS being strong inducers of both, depending on the type of macrophage, and TGF-beta 1 and PGE(2) stimulating only arginase activity. This increase in arginase activity in macrophages from chickens inoculated with Marek's disease virus might thus be due to a direct effect of the virus on macrophages, possibly through viral products, or to indirect effects on the cytokine balance.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Veterinary Microbiol...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Veterinary Microbiology
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Veterinary Microbiol...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Veterinary Microbiology
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Slezak, E.; Kneib, J.P.; Lima Neto, G.B.; Durret, F.; +16 Authors

    We have searched for diffuse intracluster light in the galaxy cluster Abell 2667 (z=0.233) from HST images in three filters. We have applied to these images an iterative multi-scale wavelet analysis and reconstruction technique, which allows to subtract stars and galaxies from the original images. We detect a zone of diffuse emission south west of the cluster center (DS1), and a second faint object (ComDif), within DS1. Another diffuse source (DS2) may be detected, at lower confidence level, north east of the center. These sources of diffuse light contribute to 10-15% of the total visible light in the cluster. Whether they are independent entities or are part of the very elliptical external envelope of the central galaxy remains unclear. VLT VIMOS integral field spectroscopy reveals a faint continuum at the positions of DS1 and ComDif but do not allow to compute a redshift. A hierarchical substructure detection method reveals the presence of several galaxy pairs and groups defining a similar direction as the one drawn by the DS1-central galaxy-DS2 axis. The analysis of archive XMM-Newton and Chandra observations shows X-ray emission elongated in the same direction. The X-ray temperature map shows the presence of a cool core, a broad cool zone stretching from north to south and hotter regions towards the north east, south west and north west. This possibly suggests shock fronts along these directions produced by infalling material. These various data are consistent with a picture in which diffuse sources are concentrations of tidal debris and harassed matter expelled from infalling galaxies by tidal stripping and undergoing an accretion process onto the central cluster galaxy; as such, they are expected to be found along the main infall directions. Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2006
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2006
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2006
    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Carraz, Damien;

    Que les ordres militaires aient été capables d’intégrer les femmes par le biais de systèmes d’affiliations, au demeurant mal définis, est un fait déjà relevé par certains travaux anglo-saxons. Mais on n’a jamais évalué globalement la place du second sexe auprès des commanderies « ordinaires » de l’Hôpital et du Temple, en considérant toutes les formes de relations qui pouvaient se développer entre ces communautés religieuses masculines et leurs voisines laïques. La riche documentation rassemblée pour le Bas-Rhône des XIIe-XIIIe siècles montre d’abord des femmes pleinement impliquées dans les échanges fonciers avec les ordres militaires. Si elles vendent plus qu’elles ne donnent, les dames issues de la petite et moyenne aristocratie n’en fréquentent pas moins régulièrement des commanderies qui paraissent plus que jamais ouvertes aux laïcs. De fait, nombreuses sont celles qui prolongent ces liens matériels par une profonde dévotion envers les frères : celle-ci est révélée par la pratique testamentaire, comme par les affiliations, parmi lesquelles il faut distinguer les élections de sépulture, les contrats de consœurs puis de donates et enfin, pour l’Hôpital, les professions complètes. À une époque où l’Église répond encore assez mal aux attentes des pieuses laïques, les ordres militaires furent capables d’intégrer ces dernières dans de nouvelles formes de solidarité et de leur offrir un véritable modèle de vie chrétienne : chasteté dans le veuvage comme dans le mariage, participation aux prières et aux œuvres pieuses prodiguées par les commanderies, voire même adhésion à l’idéal de la chevalerie et de la guerre sainte. Presence and Devotion of Women around Lower-Rhone Commanderies (12th and 13th Centuries). Some English-speaking scholars have already put to the fore the fact that military orders were able to integrate women through a system of affiliation which was, incidentally, rather vague. But the overall implication of women within the commanderies of the Orders of the Temple and Hospitallers has never been assessed, taking into account the variety of relationships that could grow between the male religious communities and their lay female neighbours. The profusion of documents gathered dealing with 12th-13th century Lower-Rhone first shows that women were fully involved in the property trade with military orders. Even if they sold more than they gave away, the ladies who came from the lower and middle aristocracy could still often be seen in commanderies which seemed more than ever open to lay people. As a matter of fact, many of them extended the material links with the brothers to a deep devotion towards them. This can be seen through wills as well as affiliations among which elections to a sepulture should be distinguished from consores and donates contracts and, lastly, as regards the Hospitallers, full professions. At a time when the Church was still unable to fulfil entirely the demands of lay pious women, military orders were able to integrate them into new forms of solidarity and to offer them an actual model of Christian life : chastity in widowhood as in marriage, part taking in the prayers and pious deeds organised by commanderies and even supporting the ideal of the chivalry and of the crusades. Carraz Damien. Présences et dévotions féminines autour des commanderies du Bas-Rhône (XIIe -XIIIe siècle ). In: Les ordres religieux militaires dans le Midi (XIIe-XIVe siècle) Toulouse : Éditions Privat, 2006. pp. 71-99. (Cahiers de Fanjeaux, 41)

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Reti Medievali Open ...arrow_drop_down
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    Reti Medievali Open Archive
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.3406/cafan....
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J. B. Vielfaure; S. D. Vergani; J. Japelj; Johan P. U. Fynbo; +22 Authors

    Context. The identification of the sources that reionized the Universe and their specific contribution to this process are key missing pieces of our knowledge of the early Universe. Faint star-forming galaxies may be the main contributors to the ionizing photon budget during the epoch of reionization, but their escaping photons cannot be detected directly due to inter-galactic medium opacity. Hence, it is essential to characterize the properties of faint galaxies with significant Lyman continuum (LyC) photon leakage up to z ∼ 4 to define indirect indicators allowing analogs to be found at the highest redshift. Aims. Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) typically explode in star-forming regions of faint, star-forming galaxies. Through LGRB afterglow spectroscopy it is possible to detect directly LyC photons. Our aim is to use LGRBs as tools to study LyC leakage from faint, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Methods. Here we present the observations of LyC emission in the afterglow spectra of GRB 191004B at z = 3.5055, together with those of the other two previously known LyC-leaking LGRB host galaxies (GRB 050908 at z = 3.3467, and GRB 060607A at z = 3.0749), to determine their LyC escape fraction and compare their properties. Results. From the afterglow spectrum of GRB 191004B we determine a neutral hydrogen column density at the LGRB redshift of log(NH I/cm−2) = 17.2 ± 0.15, and negligible extinction (AV = 0.03 ± 0.02 mag). The only metal absorption lines detected are C IV and Si IV. In contrast to GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A, the host galaxy of GRB 191004B displays significant Lyman-alpha (Lyα) emission. From its Lyα emission and the non-detection of Balmer emission lines we constrain its star-formation rate (SFR) to 1 ≤ SFR ≤ 4.7 M⊙ yr−1. We fit the Lyα emission with a shell model and find parameters values consistent with the observed ones. The absolute (relative) LyC escape fractions we find for GRB 191004B, GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A are of 0.35−0.11+0.10 (0.43−0.13+0.12), 0.08−0.04+0.05 (0.08−0.04+0.05) and 0.20−0.05+0.05 (0.45−0.15+0.15), respectively. We compare the LyC escape fraction of LGRBs to the values of other LyC emitters found from the literature, showing that LGRB afterglows can be powerful tools to study LyC escape for faint high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Indeed we could push LyC leakage studies to much higher absolute magnitudes. The host galaxies of the three LGRBs presented here have all M1600 > −19.5 mag, with the GRB 060607A host at M1600 > −16 mag. LGRB hosts may therefore be particularly suitable for exploring the ionizing escape fraction in galaxies that are too faint or distant for conventional techniques. Furthermore, the time involved is minimal compared to galaxy studies. © J.-B. Vielfaure et al. 2020 This work is part of the BEaPro project (PI: S.D. Vergani) funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-16-CE31-0003). We thank Giancarlo Ghirlanda for providing useful information. JBV and SDV thank Anne Verhamme for useful discussions. SDV acknowledges financial support from the French Space Agency (CNES). MG was supported by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51409 and acknowledges support from HST grants HST-GO-15643.017-A, HST-AR-15039.003-A, and XSEDE grant TG-AST180036. The Cosmic DAWN center is funded by the DNRF. JPUF thanks the Carlsberg foundation for support. DBM acknowledges support from VILLUM FONDEN research grant 19054. NRT acknowledges support from STFC via grant ST/N000757/1. DAK acknowledges support from Spanish research project RTI2018-098104-J-I00 (GRBPhot). The PanSTARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project O ffice, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium).Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. The NumPy (van der Walt et al. 2011), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020) and matplotlib (Hunter 2007) packages have been extensively used for the preparation and presentation of this work. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Peer reviewed

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    Article . 2020
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    Article . 2020
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2020
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    Other literature type . Preprint . 2020
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Article
      License: CC BY
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      Opin visindi
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2020
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2020
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      Other literature type . Preprint . 2020
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; +196 Authors

    A search for excited leptons $\rm e^*,~\mu^*, ~\tau^*$ and $\nu_{\rm e}^*$ in $\rm e^+e^-$ collisions at $\rm \sqrt{s}$ = 161 GeV is performed using the $\rm 10.8 ~pb^{-1}$ of data collected by the L3 detector at LEP. No evidence has been found for their existence. From an analysis of the expected $\ell^*\ell^*$ pair production in the channels $\rm ee\gamma\gamma$, $\rm \mu\mu\gamma\gamma$, $\rm \tau\tau\gamma\gamma$, $\rm eeWW$, and $\rm \nu\nu\gamma\gamma$, the lower mass limits at 95\% C.L. are 79.7 GeV for $\rm e^{*}$, 79.9 GeV for $\mu^{*}$, 79.3 GeV for $\tau^{*}$ and 71.3 GeV for $\nu_{\rm e}^{*}$ assuming the same couplings as for standard leptons. From an analysis of the expected $\ell\ell^*$ single production in channels $\rm ee\gamma$, $\mu\mu\gamma$, $ \tau\tau\gamma$, $\rm \nu_{e}eW$ and $\nu\nu\gamma$, the upper limits on the couplings $\lambda/m_{\ell^*}$ up to $m_{\ell^{*}}$ = 161 GeV are determined.

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    NARCIS
    Article . 1997
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    Article . 1997
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    CERN Document Server
    Other literature type . 1997
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    Article . 1997
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      CERN Document Server
      Other literature type . 1997
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      Article . 1997
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Helfer, E.; Harlepp, S.; Bourdieu, Laurent; Robert, J.; +2 Authors

    In living cells, cytoskeletal filaments interact with the plasma membrane to form structures that play a key role in cell shape and mechanical properties. To study the interaction between these basic components, we designed an in vitro self-assembled network of actin filaments attached to the outer surface of giant unilamellar vesicles. Optical tweezers and single-particle tracking experiments are used to study the rich dynamics of these actin-coated membranes (ACM). We show that microrheology studies can be carried out on such an individual microscopic object. The principle of the experiment consists in measuring the thermally excited position fluctuations of a probe bead attached biochemically to the membrane. We propose a model that relates the power spectrum of these thermal fluctuations to the viscoelastic properties of the membrane. The presence of the actin network modifies strongly the membrane dynamics with respect to a fluid, lipid bilayer one. It induces first a finite (omega=0) two-dimensional (2D) shear modulus G(0)(2D) approximately 0.5 to 5 microN/m in the membrane plane. Moreover, the frequency dependence at high frequency of the shear modulus [G(')(2D)(f ) approximately f(0.85+/-0.07)] and of the bending modulus (kappa(ACM)(f) approximately f(0.55+/-0.21)) demonstrate the viscoelastic behavior of the composite membrane. These results are consistent with a common exponent of 0.75 for both moduli as expected from our model and from prior measurements on actin solutions.

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    Physical Review A
    Article . 2001
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    Physical Review E
    Article . 2001
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    https://doi.org/10.1103/physre...
    Article . 2001 . Peer-reviewed
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      Physical Review A
      Article . 2001
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      Article . 2001
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  • Authors: Fauvel, Mathieu; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Benediktsson, Jon Atli;

    In the recent years, pixel-wise classification of hyperspectral images aroused many developments, and the literature now provides various classifiers for numerous applications. In this chapter, we present a generic framework where the redundant or complementary results provided by multiple classifiers can actually be aggregated. Taking advantage from the specificities of each classifier, the decision fusion thus increases the overall classification performances. The proposed fusion approach is in two steps. In a first step, data are processed by each classifier separately and the algorithms provide for each pixel membership degrees for the considered classes. Then, in a second step, a fuzzy decision rule is used to aggregate the results provided by the algorithms according to the classifiers’ capabilities. The general framework proposed for combining information from several individual classifiers in multiclass classification is based on the definition of two measures of accuracy. The first one is a point-wise measure which estimates for each pixel the reliability of the information provided by each classifier. By modeling the output of a classifier as a fuzzy set, this point-wise reliability is defined as the degree of uncertainty of the fuzzy set. The second measure estimates the global accuracy of each classifier. It is defined a priori by the user. Finally, the results are aggregated with an adaptive fuzzy fusion ruled by these two accuracy measures. The method is illustrated by considering the classification of hyperspectral remote sensing images from urban areas. It is tested and validated with two classifiers on a ROSIS image from Pavia, Italy. The proposed method improves the classification results when compared with the separate use of the different classifiers. The approach is also compared to several other standard fuzzy fusion schemes.

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    Authors: Baptist, Florence;

    Les écosystèmes alpins, au même titre que les écosystèmes arctiques, séquestrent des quantités importantes de carbone dans leurs sols. Dans ces écosystèmes, la topographie locale détermine la répartition de la neige; un facteur qui, sur le court terme, affecte les paramètres physiques de l'environnement (effets directs) et qui, sur le long terme, a sélectionné des communautés végétales et microbiennes très différentes aux deux extrêmes du gradient de mésotopographie (effets indirects). Au regard des modifications futures des régimes d'enneigement prédits par les différents modèles climatiques, cette étude vise à explorer les contrôles directs et indirects exercés par l'enneigement sur la fixation du CO2 et la minéralisation du carbone organique dans les écosystèmes alpins. Les paramètres physiques des sols (eau et température) ont été mesurés pendant plusieurs années révélant les effets directs. Afin de quantifier les effets indirects de l'enneigement sur les flux biogéochimiques, nous avons utilisé les caractéristiques fonctionnelles des végétaux (leurs traits). Différentes approches (mesures in situ, manipulations expérimentales et modélisation) ont été employées. Cette étude démontre que la fixation du carbone le long des gradients de mésotopographie est à la fois déterminée par les traits fonctionnels végétaux, les propriétés des canopées et la longueur de la saison de végétation. Un allongement de la saison de végétation devrait entraîner une augmentation marquée de la production primaire si les événements de gel en début de saison de végétation demeurent limités. La minéralisation du carbone est au contraire largement dépendante de la qualité de la matière organique contenue dans les sols. Des changements de composition en traits fonctionnels de la végétation, notamment ceux affectant les concentrations en lignine des litières, devraient avoir un impact déterminant sur les vitesses de minéralisation de la matière organique. Enfin, l'étude des flux de carbone et d'azote dans les plantes dominantes et à l'interface plante – sol révèle un couplage temporel et spatial essentiel chez les espèces dont la croissance est limitée par la longueur de la saison de végétation. Ce couplage apparaît plus limité dans les communautés végétales bénéficiant d'une plus longue saison de végétation. L'évolution des flux et stocks de carbone au sein des écosystèmes alpins dans un contexte de changement climatique est discutée. Alpine tundra store large carbon stocks in their soils. In these ecosystems, the local mesotopography determines snow cover distribution, a key variable, which affect the edapho-climatic conditions on the short term (direct effects) and, in the longer-term, select for contrasting plant and microbial communities at both ends of the topographical gradient (indirect effects). In the context of global change, where large changes in snow precipitations are projected, this study explores the controls exerted by snow cover on carbon fixation and carbon mineralization in alpine tundra. Edapho-climatic variables (water and temperature) were measured during several years and we used vegetation functional characteristics (using plant functional traits) to quantify the indirect effects of snow cover on biogeochemical cycles. Various approaches (in situ measurements, experimental manipulations and modeling) were used. This study demonstrates that carbon fixation along mesotopographical gradients is determined by plant functional traits, canopy properties and growing season length. A longer growing season may lead to a marked increase in primary production, if freezing events at snowmelt remain infrequent. In contrast, carbon mineralization is mainly dependant over soil organic matter quality. Shifts in plant functional traits, in particular those related to litter lignin content, will strongly impact the degradation process. Finally, the quantification of carbon and nitrogen fluxes in plants and at the plant-soil interface reveals a tight spatial and temporal coupling which is essential for species whose growth is limited by growing vegetation length. This coupling is reduced in plant communities which benefit from a longer growing season. The evolution of carbon fluxes and stocks in alpine ecosystems is discussed in the context of climatic changes.

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    Authors: Bonnier-Rigny, Agnès; Krob, Daniel;

    in "Selected papers of the second international colloquium on words, languages and combinatorics", Kyoto, Août 1992, (M. Ito, Ed.); We give a complete system of rational identities for one-letter rational expressions with multiplicities in the tropical semiring.

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    Authors: Biza, Irene;

    International audience

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Djeraba, A.; Musset, Eugène; van Rooijen, N.; Quéré, Pascale, P.;

    The metabolic NO pathway, catalyzed by the enzyme NO synthase in macrophages, is a key defense element against viruses and tumors. However, arginase is an other enzyme able to metabolize the substrate L-arginine, and the two enzymes are alternatively regulated by Th1 and Th2 cytokines in murine macrophages. Marek's disease is characterized by strong immunosuppression and development of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Inoculation of the very virulent strain of MDV RB-1B induced strong and long-lasting arginase macrophage-dependent activity, which was inhibited by L-norvaline in vitro, but induced low NO production in monocytes and splenocytes from highly susceptible B(13)/B(13) chickens. By contrast, in B(21)/B(21) chickens genetically resistant to tumor development, RB-1B induced a weak and transient increase in arginase activity and strong NO production. The vaccinal HVT strain did not induce any arginase activity in monocytes or splenocytes. Moreover, vaccination with HVT prevented tumor appearance after RB-1B challenge and increase in arginase activity, but favored NO production in susceptible chickens. Differential expression of NO synthase and arginase was modulated in chicken macrophages, with IFN-gamma and LPS being strong inducers of both, depending on the type of macrophage, and TGF-beta 1 and PGE(2) stimulating only arginase activity. This increase in arginase activity in macrophages from chickens inoculated with Marek's disease virus might thus be due to a direct effect of the virus on macrophages, possibly through viral products, or to indirect effects on the cytokine balance.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Veterinary Microbiol...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Veterinary Microbiology
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Veterinary Microbiol...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao