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17 Research products

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  • Authors: Fauvel, Mathieu; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Benediktsson, Jon Atli;

    In the recent years, pixel-wise classification of hyperspectral images aroused many developments, and the literature now provides various classifiers for numerous applications. In this chapter, we present a generic framework where the redundant or complementary results provided by multiple classifiers can actually be aggregated. Taking advantage from the specificities of each classifier, the decision fusion thus increases the overall classification performances. The proposed fusion approach is in two steps. In a first step, data are processed by each classifier separately and the algorithms provide for each pixel membership degrees for the considered classes. Then, in a second step, a fuzzy decision rule is used to aggregate the results provided by the algorithms according to the classifiers’ capabilities. The general framework proposed for combining information from several individual classifiers in multiclass classification is based on the definition of two measures of accuracy. The first one is a point-wise measure which estimates for each pixel the reliability of the information provided by each classifier. By modeling the output of a classifier as a fuzzy set, this point-wise reliability is defined as the degree of uncertainty of the fuzzy set. The second measure estimates the global accuracy of each classifier. It is defined a priori by the user. Finally, the results are aggregated with an adaptive fuzzy fusion ruled by these two accuracy measures. The method is illustrated by considering the classification of hyperspectral remote sensing images from urban areas. It is tested and validated with two classifiers on a ROSIS image from Pavia, Italy. The proposed method improves the classification results when compared with the separate use of the different classifiers. The approach is also compared to several other standard fuzzy fusion schemes.

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    Authors: van Ree, C.C.D.F.; Willemsen, M. A. M.; Heilemann, K.; Morris, M. W.; +2 Authors

    [Departement_IRSTEA]Eaux [TR1_IRSTEA]RIVAGE; International audience; The FloodProBE project started as a FP7 research project in November 2009. Floods, together with wind related storms, are considered the major natural hazard in the EU in terms of risk to people and assets. In order to adapt urban areas (in river and coastal zones) to prevent flooding or to be better prepared for floods, decision makers need to determine how to upgrade flood defences and increasing flood resilience of protected buildings and critical infrastructure (power supplies, communications, water, transport, etc) and assess the expected risk reduction from these measures. The aim of the FloodProBE-project is to improve knowledge on flood resilience and flood protection performance for balancing investments in flood risk management in urban areas. To this end, technologies, methods and tools for assessment purposes and for the adaptation of new and existing buildings and critical infrastructure are developed, tested and disseminated. Three priority areas are addressed by FloodProBE. These are: i) vulnerability of critical infrastructure and high-density value assets including direct and indirect damage, ii) the assessment and reliability of urban flood defences including the use of geophysical methods and remote sensing techniques and iii) concepts and technologies for upgrading weak links in flood defences as well as construction technologies for flood proofing buildings and infrastructure networks to increase the flood resilience of the urban system. The primary impact of FloodProBE in advancing knowledge in these areas is an increase in the cost-effectiveness (i.e. performance) of new and existing flood protection structures and flood resilience measures.

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    Environmental Science & Policy
    Other literature type . Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Authors: Patella, Vincenzo; Florio, G; Magliacane, D; CURATOLA, GIULIANO ANTONIO; +6 Authors

    International audience; In recent years, climate change has been influenced by air pollution, and this destructive combination has justifiably sounded an alarm for nations and many institutional bodies worldwide. Official reports state that the emission of greenhouse gases produced by human activity are growing, and consequently also the average temperature. The World Health Organization (WHO) believes that health effects expected in the future due to climate change will be dramatic, and has invited international groups to investigate potential remedies. A task force has been established by the Italian Society of Allergology, Asthma and Clinical Immunology (SIAAIC), with the aim to actively work on correlation between pollution and climate change. The Task Force provided prevention tools to suggest city leaders how to improve the health conditions of allergic people in public urban parks. The "Allergy Safe Tree Decalogue" suggests the preparation and maintenance of public low allergy-impact greenery. Through the Twinning ARIA project, the Division for the Promotion and Enhancement of Health Innovation Programs of Campania Region (Italy), sought to promote the implementation of the project in the regional Health System. The main objective will be to investigate the current use and usefulness of mobile phone Apps in the management of allergic respiratory disease, through Mobile Airways Sentinel networK (MASK), the Phase 3 of the ARIA initiative, based on the freely available MASK App (the Allergy Diary, Android and iOS platforms). The effects of these prevention activities will be registered and compared with monitoring efforts thanks to the Aerobiology Units, located throughout the Campania area. A joint effort between researchers and public administrations for the implementation of prevention plans coherently with the two models proposed in a specific area, i.e. the Decalogue for public administrations and the MASK Allergy Diary app for individual patients suffering from allergy, will be implemented as a pilot.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Authors: Chanussot, Jocelyn; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Fauvel, Mathieu;

    International audience; The classification of very high-resolution remotely sensed images from urban areas is addressed. Previous studies have shown the interest of exploiting the local geometrical information of each pixel to improve the classification. This is performed using the derivative morphological profile (DMP) obtained with a granulometric approach, using opening and closing operators. For each pixel, this DMP constitutes the feature vector on which the classification is based. In this letter, we present an interpretation of the DMP in terms of a fuzzy measurement of the characteristic size and contrast of each structure. This fuzzy measure can be compared to predefined possibility distributions to derive a membership degree for a set of given classes. The decision is taken by selecting the class with the highest membership degree. This model is illustrated and validated in a classification problem using IKONOS images.

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    IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Article . 2006
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    Other literature type . Article . 2006
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    Authors: Schut, Pierre-Olaf; Philippe, Marion;

    Les bases de plein air et de loisirs (BPAL) sont des installations aménagées à la fin des années 1960 pour accueillir la population des grandes villes environnantes dans un espace vert dédié à la détente et aux activités sportives. Ces vastes opérations d’aménagement destinées à accueillir une importante population urbaine touchent des petites communes rurales. Dans cet article, nous montrons les réactions des résidents face à la construction des BPAL. Les formes de manifestations et les arguments déployés varient selon les sites et les contextes. Pour restituer leurs formes, nous nous appuyons sur la presse et les archives publiques. Nous portons particulièrement notre attention sur les enquêtes publiques réalisées dans le cadre des opérations foncières nécessaires à l’acquisition des terrains des BPAL de Jablines-Aneth et Bois-le-Roi. Les résultats révèlent des oppositions nourries par les nuisances qu’engendre la venue des populations urbaines sur ces territoires ruraux. Ils donnent aussi à voir des situations contrastées en fonction de la situation des communes dans lesquelles sont implantées les BPAL. Bases de plein air et de loisirs (outdoor and leisure bases, or BPAL)) are facilities established at the end of the 1960s to accommodate the population of the large surrounding towns in a green area dedicated to relaxation and sports activities. These vast development operations designed to accommodate a large urban population affect small rural municipalities, known as communes. In this article, we show the reactions of residents to the construction of the BPALs. The forms of events and the arguments deployed vary according to the sites and contexts. To reconstruct their forms, we rely on the press and public archives. We pay particular attention to the public enquiries carried out in the context of the property transactions required to acquire the BPAL land at Jablines-Aneth and Bois-le-Roi. The results reveal oppositions fuelled by the disturbances caused by the arrival of urban populations on these rural territories. They also show contrasting situations depending on the situation of the communes in which the BPALs are located.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Spence, R. J. S.; Kelman, I.; Baxter, P. J.; Zuccaro, G.; +1 Authors

    International audience; Plinian and subplinian volcanic eruptions can be accompanied by tephra falls which may last hours or days, posing threats to people, buildings and economic activity. Numerous historical examples exist of tephra damage and tephra casualties. The mechanisms and consequences of roof collapse from static tephra load are an important area of tephra damage requiring more research. This paper contributes to this work by estimating the structural vulnerability of buildings to tephra load based on both analytical studies and observed damage. New studies are presented of roof strengths in the area around Mt. Vesuvius in southern Italy and of field surveys undertaken in other European volcanic locations to assess building vulnerability to tephra fall. The results are a proposed set of new European tephra fall roof vulnerability curves in areas potentially threatened by explosive volcanic eruptions along with comments on the human casualty implications of roof collapse under tephra loading. Some mitigation recommendations are provided.

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    Other literature type . 2005
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    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ripple, William J.; Wolf, Christopher; Newsome, Thomas M.; Galetti, Mauro; +22 Authors

    Twenty-five years ago, the Union of Concerned Scientists and more than 1700 independent scientists, including the majority of living Nobel laureates in the sciences, penned the 1992 "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity" (see supplemental file S1). These concerned professionals called on humankind to curtail environmental destruction and cautioned that "a great change in our stewardship of the Earth and the life on it is required, if vast human misery is to be avoided." In their manifesto, they showed that humans were on a collision course with the natural world. They expressed concern about current, impending, or potential damage on planet Earth involving ozone depletion, freshwater availability, marine life depletion, ocean dead zones, forest loss, biodiversity destruction, climate change, and continued human population growth. They proclaimed that fundamental changes were urgently needed to avoid the consequences our present course would bring. And 15,364 scientist signatories from 184 countries. Peer Reviewed

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    Article . 2017
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    Authors: Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus; Morana, Joëlle;

    Urban logistics is a field that studies the best solutions for urban freight distribution with high environmental objectives. However, most actions are started by public authorities without taking into account the impacts of the new organizational schemas in the existing distribution enterprises’ organization. This paper proposes a case study from Padova, Italy: the city logistics system Cityporto, from which the sustainability of such systems is discussed in a Sustainable Development point of view, for both enterprise and collective dimensions, in order to relate the particularities of city logistics to the corresponding supply chains, i.e. to global logistics. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, Vol 3, N° 2 (2010): City Logistics

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    Authors: Roussel, Fabien; Schulp, Catharina J.E.; Verburg, Peter H.; Van Teeffelen, Astrid,;

    Abstract Through their semi-natural and agricultural areas, peri-urban regions are pivotal in providing ecosystem services (ES) to city dwellers. To quantify the ES provided by these areas, it is possible to use ES mapping methods: many ES mapping methods rely on land cover maps, but most maps are coarse compared to the peri-urban scale. Nevertheless, readily-available land use data and methods are often used to map ES at such scales, without contextualisation. As a result, such methods may not be able to capture the diversity that is present in the peri-urban vegetation, which could have consequences for their accuracy and furthermore for urban planning policies. To increase our understanding of the applicability of ES mapping methods in peri-urban regions, we assessed to what degree sites with similar plant composition in the green belt of Paris, France, were also projected to have similar ES bundles. We considered two commonly used ES model types: proxy-based models (here: look-up tables) and phenomenological models. We used 252 sites for which botanical survey data were available and applied the ES models to seven ES relevant in the peri-urban context. A cluster analysis was used to group sites, hence facilitating analyse of the spatial congruence between types of vegetation and bundles of ES. Clustering sites based on plant composition revealed six distinct clusters. Clustering sites based on ES bundles as estimated by phenomenological models and proxy-based models, resulted in four and two clusters, respectively. The proxy-based clustering only highlighted broad-leaved forests as an important ES supply source. The phenomenological model estimates of ES allowed a more nuanced clustering of sites into four different groups. The level of congruence between the different sets of clusters based on plant composition and estimated ES bundles was low. Except for forests, the commonly used ES models tested here were not able to represent the same level of heterogeneity in the peri-urban landscape as was found in the vegetation. Our results demonstrate the need to integrate finer scale approaches and primary data in ES assessments of peri-urban areas.

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    Ecological Indicators
    Article . 2017
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    Ecological Indicators
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    Ecological Indicators
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Vrije Univer...arrow_drop_down
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      Ecological Indicators
      Article . 2017
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      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Dorso, Franck;

    Le texte aborde la question de la tension entre homogénéisation et différenciation à partir des usages informels et illégaux de la ville. Au-delà des condamnations dont ils font l’objet, ces usages remplissent des rôles essentiels de régulation, au Nord comme au Sud, en termes économiques, urbains, sociaux, politiques. Ils constituent des formes de soupape des processus d’urbanisation mais aussi, plus globalement, de socialisation. Ils permettent dans ce registre des épisodes de retrait ou de transgression vis-à-vis du contexte normatif, sans pour autant remettre en cause l’ordre social. Cette logique de l’écart renvoie à la tension affiliation normative-différenciation qui innerve la socialisation. Le texte explore la dynamique de cette tension, comme une modalité du couple homogénéisation-différenciation, ainsi que ses implications en termes sociologiques et d’action urbanistique. The text addresses the tension between homogenization and differentiation from the informal and illegal uses of the city. Beyond the condemnations they are subjects, these uses perform essential roles of regulation, both North and South, in economic, urban, social, political. They are forms of valve into the processes of urbanization but also, more generally, of socialization. They allow episodes of retreat or transgression toward the normative context, without calling into question the social order. This logic of yaw/swerve is an analyzer on the tension between normative affiliation and differentiation which innervates socialization. The text explores the dynamics of this tension, as a form of the couple homogenization-differentiation, and its implications into sociology and urbanistic action.

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    Other literature type . 2012
    Nouvelles perspectives en sciences sociales; Érudit
    Other literature type . Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Fauvel, Mathieu; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Benediktsson, Jon Atli;

    In the recent years, pixel-wise classification of hyperspectral images aroused many developments, and the literature now provides various classifiers for numerous applications. In this chapter, we present a generic framework where the redundant or complementary results provided by multiple classifiers can actually be aggregated. Taking advantage from the specificities of each classifier, the decision fusion thus increases the overall classification performances. The proposed fusion approach is in two steps. In a first step, data are processed by each classifier separately and the algorithms provide for each pixel membership degrees for the considered classes. Then, in a second step, a fuzzy decision rule is used to aggregate the results provided by the algorithms according to the classifiers’ capabilities. The general framework proposed for combining information from several individual classifiers in multiclass classification is based on the definition of two measures of accuracy. The first one is a point-wise measure which estimates for each pixel the reliability of the information provided by each classifier. By modeling the output of a classifier as a fuzzy set, this point-wise reliability is defined as the degree of uncertainty of the fuzzy set. The second measure estimates the global accuracy of each classifier. It is defined a priori by the user. Finally, the results are aggregated with an adaptive fuzzy fusion ruled by these two accuracy measures. The method is illustrated by considering the classification of hyperspectral remote sensing images from urban areas. It is tested and validated with two classifiers on a ROSIS image from Pavia, Italy. The proposed method improves the classification results when compared with the separate use of the different classifiers. The approach is also compared to several other standard fuzzy fusion schemes.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao