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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Saillard , Marc; Forget , Philippe; Soriano , Gabriel; Joelson , Maminirina; +2 Authors

    Abstract In a first part, this paper describes radar experiments aimed at probing the sea surface from the coast. To capture small-scale changes in a coastal environment, a flexible high resolution, Doppler L-band radar with high resolution in range has been used. The data exhibit significant sensitivity to current and wind, which justifies the development of a model for inversion. The second part of the paper is thus devoted to our first attempt to model radar echoes, in order to accurately describe the influence of the geophysical parameters of interest. Here, the focus is put on waves generated by a local wind. The key point consists in taking properly into account non-linear hydrodynamic interactions between waves to generate a realistic moving sea surface. From the electromagnetic point of view, since standard low-frequency approximations no longer hold at L-band, a small-slope approximation has been implemented to compute the backscattered field. Numerical results show that for light winds (less than 5 m s −1 ) the model correctly predicts the behaviour of the data with respect to wind speed and direction. To cite this article: M. Saillard et al., C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

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    Comptes Rendus Physique
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Boisteau, Benjamin; Marion, Loic;

    Resume L'etude a porte sur l'analyse des relations spatiales existant entre repartition et taille des colonies de herons cendres dans deux zones refuges apres le declin du XIXe siecle : la Bretagne meridionale (Loire-Atlantique et Morbihan) et l'Est de la France (Haute-Saone, Saone-et-Loire, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Vosges), totalisant 112 colonies en 1994, qui ont ete testees par SIG a l'aide de 35 descripteurs du reseau hydrographique d'un niveau local a un niveau regional. Les resultats montrent que, quelle que soit l'echelle, l'installation des colonies n'est pas regie par les memes elements du reseau hydrographique d'un departement a l'autre. On distingue deux strategies d'utilisation du milieu entre l'Ouest et l'Est de la France, mais on peut egalement discerner deux situations bien distinctes entre le Morbihan et la Loire-Atlantique. Cette etude souligne l'importance du type et de l'organisation des elements hydrographiques, mais aussi de l'histoire des populations, dans la localisation des colonies de herons cendres. Pour citer cet article : B. Boisteau, L. Marion, C. R. Biologies 329 (2006).

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    Comptes Rendus Biologies
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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      Comptes Rendus Biologies
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  • Authors: Tay, Sarab; Maussang, Frederic; Coatanhay, Arnaud; Garello, René;

    International audience; Today, one of the methods in monitoring oceans is the use of radar systems or more generally the use of electromagnetic diffusion. Thanks to the deployment of satellite navigation systems (GNSS), such as GPS, GNSS signals are being used more and more as an opportunity source for this kind of observation. This paper assesses the measurement of oceanographic parameters within a few meters near the surface. The oceanographic phenomena that is currently available for recording is limited. That is why we propose a much finer analysis of the diffusion and the scattering of GNSS signals near ocean surface, by employing very fine time steps and integration over the long periods of code. The final goal is to be able to perceive very fine phenomena, among which the ocean surface kinematics. In order to achieve this, the application of sophisticated processing algorithms is needed. In this work we simulate and highlight the observable effects expected as a result of use of such a method. The work is realized as a part of the MOPS project.

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  • Authors: Amate, Maud; Hétet, Alain; Guyonic, Stéphane; Legris, Michel; +5 Authors

    In order to improve the Mine Countermeasures capability, there is a need to investigate new techniques which will enable the detection, localisation and classification of buried mines. This paper deals with results obtained in France, under a sonar program involving GESMA and three academic laboratories. An experimental approach has been preferred. Two techniques are under evaluation: the low frequency Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) mounted on a platform as a side scan sonar dedicated to buried mines detection and a sonar mounted just below a platform, looking vertically at the seabed, dedicated to buried mines classification. International audience

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    Authors: Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Larnicol, G.; D'Acunzo, E.; Santoleri, R.; +2 Authors

    The Near Real Time (NRT) operational prod- ucts developed from satellite data (AVHRR, Topex/Poseidon, Ers-2) in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecast- ing System Pilot Project (MFSPP, autumn 1998-autumn 2000) are described and compared to delayed time products over the Mediterranean sea. MFSPP SLA and SST data are then discussed in the general context of the Mediter- ranean circulation, showing the interannual variability of the fields and identifying recurrent or anomalous features at mesoscale/sub-basin scales. Finally, MFSPP data are used to test, on a regional (Mediterranean) context, a multi-variate method to identify coupled modes of variability, consisting in the SVD of the covariance between SST and SLA. In the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project (MFSPP), a near real time acquisition and pro- cessing system of remote sensing data was set up and tested for the Mediterranean sea. The system was based on existing facilities and could also serve as a prototype for future oper- ational systems. Near real time (NRT) remote sensing data provided unique data sets for the setting up of the operational Mediterranean Forecasting System, being used for the initial- ization of the weekly forecasts. The development and test of algorithms to process NRT altimeter data, the development of a NRT Sea Surface Temperature product, and the analysis of the remotely sensed data collected during MFSPP were thus fundamental steps in the definition of an operational satellite system. a consequence, the aim of this paper is, first of all, to de- scribe the MFSPP near real time satellite data set (AVHRR, TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-2) and to quantify the quality of NRT products against advanced products, obtainable only in delayed time. Secondly, a scientific analysis of the data will be performed in order to set the dynamical context of the MFSPP period with respect to the "typical" patterns found in the Mediterranean. This analysis will be carried out with the objective of defining the MFSPP period as "climatological" or characterized by anomalous patterns and as support to the

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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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      Annales Geophysicae
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Le Berre, Iwan; Hily, Christian; Lejart, Morgane; Gouill, Raphaël;

    accessible à l'adresse suivante : http://cybergeo.revues.org/22818; International audience; L'huître creuse du Pacifique Crassostrea gigas est une espèce introduite massivement dans les années 70 en France pour les besoins de l'ostréiculture. Elle représente aujourd'hui l'essentiel de la production conchylicole française. Depuis le début des années 90, l'espèce a commencé à s'installer durablement sur de nombreux sites de Bretagne et de Normandie. Le processus de colonisation s'est accéléré depuis 2000, induisant des modifications profondes dans les écosystèmes et des changements dans la biodiversité. Ce phénomène d'invasion biologique a pour origine probable le réchauffement climatique qui favorise l'extension spatiale des zones dans lesquelles les huîtres peuvent pondre. Un programme de recherche a été mis en œuvre pour évaluer et quantifier la dynamique de cette prolifération au niveau des façades Manche et Atlantique et pour identifier les interactions réalisées avec les écosystèmes marins et les activités humaines. L'objet de cet article est de présenter le système d'information géographique (SIG) mis en œuvre pour intégrer les données de suivi de cette prolifération sur les côtes Manche-Atlantique de la Bretagne et pour l'analyse spatiale de ses interactions potentielles avec les activités humaines du littoral. After its massive introduction in the seventies in France Crassostrea gigas has became the main production of French oyster farming. From the early 1990's, C. gigas has started to spread many sites of Brittany and Normandy and, thanks to climate warming, its population has dramatically increased leading to a general invasion and to deep changes in ecosystems and biodiversity. A research program called PROGIG has been set up to evaluate the dynamic of this proliferation on French Channel and Atlantic coasts, and to identify its interactions with marine ecosystems and human activities. This paper presents the GIS implemented to integrate the data collected during field surveys of oyster populations, and the results of a spatial analysis of its potential interactions with human activities on coastal zone.

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    Cybergeo
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  • Authors: Coatanhay, Arnaud; Khenchaf, Ali;

    This paper deals with a simulation of GALILEO signals that takes into account the electromagnetic scattering by the sea surface. This scattering by the sea, considered as a rough surface, is estimated with a Two Scale Model (TSM) approximation. More, the geometric description of the sea surface is given by a realistic spectrum (Elfouhaily spectrum) and a slope probability density function (Cox-Munk distribution). Finally, we focus on the influence of the weather and sea condition upon the GALILEO signal.

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    Authors: Lagacherie, P.; Gomez, Cécile;

    International audience; This paper reports on the use of legacy soil data for estimating three of the soil properties that are in the GlobaSoilMap specifications-Clay (CL), Organic Carbon (OC) and pH-in Languedoc Roussillon, a 27,236 km(2) region of southern France that stretches from the Mediterranean Sea to the Pyrenees and Massif Central mountains. Three Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) methods using two types of soil legacy data produced by the French National Survey program were compared: i) area-weighted means of properties for the soil mapping units of a 1:250,000 scale soil map, ii) Random Forest and iii) Random Forest + kriging predictions from a set of legacy soil measured profiles. There were significant differences in prediction performance across soil properties, DSM methods and depths. For the soil properties, pH was better predicted (best R-2 between 0.69 and 0.75) than OC (best R-2 between 0.11 and 0.42), which was better predicted than CL (best R-2 between 0.12 and 0.23). DSM methods using legacy measured profiles generally outperformed the one using the soil map although the differences were not systematically significant. All differences in performance could be largely explained by the contrasting short-scale spatial variability of the studied soil properties in Languedoc Roussillon. Examples of digital soil maps are presented and these prefigure the production of the Languedoc-Roussillon excerpt of GlobalSoilMap.

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    https://doi.org/10.1201/b16500...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hitz, Gregory; Pomerleau, François; Colas, Francis; Siegwart, Roland;

    Although many applications of small Autonomous Surface Vessels rely on two-dimensional state estimation, inspection tasks based on long-range sensors require more accurate attitude estimates. In the context of shoreline monitoring relying on a nodding laser scanner, we evaluate three different extended Kalman filter approaches with respect to an accurate ground truth in the range of millimeters. Our experimental setup allowed us to track the impact of sensors noise, including GPS non-Gaussian error, a phenomenon often underestimated. Extensive field experiments demonstrate that the use of a complementary filter in combination with a model-based extended Kalman filter performed best and reduced velocity errors by 73% compared to GPS. Finally, following our state estimation observations, we present a long-term shore monitoring result highlighting changes in the environment over a period of 6 months. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, 109 ISBN:978-3-319-23777-0 ISBN:978-3-319-23778-7 Experimental Robotics ISSN:1610-7438

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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
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      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Inglada, Jordi; Garello, René;

    Ocean surface current gradients can be imaged by real and synthetic aperture radar (RAR/SAR) due to the so-called hydrodynamic modulation mechanism. This is the reason why underwater bottom topography and internal waves are visible on radar images. Several physical models exist for this imaging mechanism. When trying to obtain current information from SAR images, a problem arises: the imaging mechanism can be nonlinear. We propose to rewrite the classical modeling of the SAR underwater bottom topography imaging mechanism by using a Volterra series expansion. The Volterra model can be seen as a tool allowing us to study whether the imaging mechanism can be inverted or not. It is a transposition of a well-studied physical problem into a more explicit expression. The conditions for the inversion of the Volterra model are presented and a scheme for estimating the bathymetry from SAR images is described. The main property of the inversion algorithm is its independence from the physical model used for the mechanism.

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    IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2002
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Journal of Ocea...arrow_drop_down
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      IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Saillard , Marc; Forget , Philippe; Soriano , Gabriel; Joelson , Maminirina; +2 Authors

    Abstract In a first part, this paper describes radar experiments aimed at probing the sea surface from the coast. To capture small-scale changes in a coastal environment, a flexible high resolution, Doppler L-band radar with high resolution in range has been used. The data exhibit significant sensitivity to current and wind, which justifies the development of a model for inversion. The second part of the paper is thus devoted to our first attempt to model radar echoes, in order to accurately describe the influence of the geophysical parameters of interest. Here, the focus is put on waves generated by a local wind. The key point consists in taking properly into account non-linear hydrodynamic interactions between waves to generate a realistic moving sea surface. From the electromagnetic point of view, since standard low-frequency approximations no longer hold at L-band, a small-slope approximation has been implemented to compute the backscattered field. Numerical results show that for light winds (less than 5 m s −1 ) the model correctly predicts the behaviour of the data with respect to wind speed and direction. To cite this article: M. Saillard et al., C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

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    Comptes Rendus Physique
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Boisteau, Benjamin; Marion, Loic;

    Resume L'etude a porte sur l'analyse des relations spatiales existant entre repartition et taille des colonies de herons cendres dans deux zones refuges apres le declin du XIXe siecle : la Bretagne meridionale (Loire-Atlantique et Morbihan) et l'Est de la France (Haute-Saone, Saone-et-Loire, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Vosges), totalisant 112 colonies en 1994, qui ont ete testees par SIG a l'aide de 35 descripteurs du reseau hydrographique d'un niveau local a un niveau regional. Les resultats montrent que, quelle que soit l'echelle, l'installation des colonies n'est pas regie par les memes elements du reseau hydrographique d'un departement a l'autre. On distingue deux strategies d'utilisation du milieu entre l'Ouest et l'Est de la France, mais on peut egalement discerner deux situations bien distinctes entre le Morbihan et la Loire-Atlantique. Cette etude souligne l'importance du type et de l'organisation des elements hydrographiques, mais aussi de l'histoire des populations, dans la localisation des colonies de herons cendres. Pour citer cet article : B. Boisteau, L. Marion, C. R. Biologies 329 (2006).

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    Comptes Rendus Biologies
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Tay, Sarab; Maussang, Frederic; Coatanhay, Arnaud; Garello, René;

    International audience; Today, one of the methods in monitoring oceans is the use of radar systems or more generally the use of electromagnetic diffusion. Thanks to the deployment of satellite navigation systems (GNSS), such as GPS, GNSS signals are being used more and more as an opportunity source for this kind of observation. This paper assesses the measurement of oceanographic parameters within a few meters near the surface. The oceanographic phenomena that is currently available for recording is limited. That is why we propose a much finer analysis of the diffusion and the scattering of GNSS signals near ocean surface, by employing very fine time steps and integration over the long periods of code. The final goal is to be able to perceive very fine phenomena, among which the ocean surface kinematics. In order to achieve this, the application of sophisticated processing algorithms is needed. In this work we simulate and highlight the observable effects expected as a result of use of such a method. The work is realized as a part of the MOPS project.