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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nicolas Puillandre; Philippe Bouchet; Thomas F. Duda; S. Kauferstein; +4 Authors

    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15 years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Cade; the others are divided between the Small Major Cade (similar to 12%), the Conus califomicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (similar to 3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2014
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . Article . 2014
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: van Wambeke, France; Lefèvre, Dominique; Prieur, Louis; Sempere, Richard; +3 Authors

    International audience; Microbial distribution and activities were examined in relation to the hydrodynamic conditions in the Almeria-Oran frontal area (AOF), SW Mediterranean Sea, during winter. The main objectives were to explore factors limiting bacterial growth and activities (production, ectoenzymatic activity, utilization and respiration of amino acids) in regard to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) stocks and lability in different parts of the Almeria-Oran front-jet system. The vertical distribution of total chl a, bacterial abundance and production reflected the density profiles, with a deepening of the top of the pycnocline from 25 (front) to 120 m (gyre). At the frontal site, most bacterial production was concentrated within the first 20 m (up to 19.8 nmol C 171 h(-1)), at the boundary between the jet and Mediterranean waters, whereas bacterial abundance peaked in a wider layer (40 m) in the jet core (up to 15 x 10(5) bacteria ml(-1)). Integrated bacterial production ranged from 5.7 to 17.9 mmol C m(-2) d(-1) in the 0 to 200 m layer in the meander of the Atlantic jet and in its associated anticyclonic gyre, compared to 4.3 to 5.8 mmol C m(-2) d-1 in typical Mediterranean waters. Heterotrophic bacteria were limited by phosphorus in the surface layers of the front and Mediterranean waters. Shipboard experiments using < 0. 8 mum filtered seawater incubated in the dark showed a high growth potential of the heterotrophic bacteria within the jet and the jet-gyre boundaries. Increased DOC accumulation (from 12 to 21 muM excess DOC = surface minus deep refractory DOC) occurred at the jet-gyre boundaries. From the jet towards the gyre, the decrease in potential ectoaminopeptidase activity was less than that of bacterial production, indicating that there was a greater dependence on polymeric DOC. Only the typical Mediterranean site, outside of the jet and gyre influences, was clearly net heterotrophic.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Article . 2004
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
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    Article . 2004
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2004
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    Other literature type . 2004
    Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ivchenko, V. O.; Danilov, S. D.; Sidorenko, D. V.; Schröter, J.; +2 Authors

    Abstract. Anomalies of dynamic height derived from an analysis of Argo profiling buoys data are analysed to assess the relative roles of contributions from temperature and salinity over the North Atlantic for the period of 1999–2004. They are compared with dynamic topography anomalies based on TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason altimetry. It is shown that the halosteric contribution to the anomalies of dynamic height is comparable in magnitude to the thermosteric one over the period analyzed. Taking both salinity and temperature into account improves the agreement between zonally averaged trends in the satellite dynamic topography and dynamic height increasing the correlation between them to 0.73 from 0.63 when only temperature variability is taken into account. The implication of this result is that the salinity contribution cannot be neglected in the North Atlantic and that one cannot rely on estimating the thermosteric part by anomalies in the sea surface dynamic topography derived from the satellite altimetry.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/osd-4-...
    Preprint . 2007
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Other literature type . 2007
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    Ocean Science
    Article . 2007
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    Ocean Science
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    Ocean Science (OS)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Ocean Science
    Article . Preprint
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.5194/osd-4-...
      Preprint . 2007
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      Ocean Science
      Article . 2007
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      Ocean Science
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      Ocean Science (OS)
      Other literature type . 2018
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      Ocean Science
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    Authors: Raimbault, Patrick; Garcia, N.; Cerutti, F.;

    During the BIOSOPE cruise the RV Atalante was dedicated to study the biogeochemical properties in the South Pacific between the Marquesas Islands (141° W–8° S) and the Chilean upwelling (73° W–34° S). Over the 8000 km covered by the cruise, several different trophic situations were encountered, in particular strong oligotrophic conditions in the South Pacific Gyre (SPG, between 123° W and 101° W). In this isolated region, nitrate was undetectable between the surface and 160–180 m and only trace quantities (<20 nmoles l−1) of regenerated nitrogen (nitrite and ammonium) were detected, even in the subsurface maximum. Integrated nitrate over the photic layer, which reached 165 m, was close to zero. Despite this severe nitrogen-depletion, phosphate was always present in significant concentrations (≈0.1 μmoles l−1), while silicic acid was maintained at low but classical oceanic levels (≈1 μmoles l−1). In contrast, the Marquesas region (MAR) to the west and Chilean upwelling (UPW) to the east were characterized by high nutrient concentrations, one hundred to one thousand fold higher than in the SPG. The distribution of surface chlorophyll reflected the nitrate gradient, the lowest concentrations (0.023 nmoles l−1) being measured at the centre of the SPG, where integrated value throughout the photic layer was very low (≈ 10 mg m−2). However, due to the relatively high concentrations of chlorophyll-a encountered in the DCM (0.2 μg l−1), chlorophyll-a concentrations throughout the photic layer were less variable than nitrate concentrations (by a factor 2 to 5). In contrast to chlorophyll-a, integrated particulate organic matter (POM) remained more or less constant along the study area (500 mmoles m−2, 60 mmoles m−2 and 3.5 mmoles m−2 for particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen and particulate organic phosphorus, respectively), with the exception of the upwelling, where values were two fold higher. The residence time of particulate carbon in the surface water was only 4–5 days in the upwelling, but up to 30 days in the SPG, where light isotopic δ15N signal noted in the suspended POM suggests that N2-fixation provides a dominant supply of nitrogen to phytoplankton. The most striking feature was the large accumulation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the SPG compared to the surrounding waters, in particular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) where concentrations were at levels rarely measured in oceanic waters (>100 μmoles l−1). Due to this large pool of DOM in the SPG photic layer, integrated values followed a converse geographical pattern to that of inorganic nutrients with a large accumulation in the centre of the SPG. Whereas suspended particulate matter in the mixed layer had a C/N ratio largely conforming to the Redfield stochiometry (C/N≈6.6), marked deviations were observed in this excess DOM (C/N≈16 to 23). The marked geographical trend suggests that a net in situ source exists, mainly due to biological processes. Thus, in spite of strong nitrate-depletion leading to low chlorophyll biomass, the closed ecosystem of the SPG can accumulate large amounts of C-rich dissolved organic matter. The implications of this finding are examined, the conclusion being that, due to weak lateral advection, the biologically produced dissolved organic carbon can be accumulated and stored in the photic layer for very long periods. In spite of the lack of seasonal vertical mixing, a significant part of new production (up to 34%), which was mainly supported by dinitrogen fixation, can be exported to deep waters by turbulent diffusion in terms of DOC. The diffusive rate estimated in the SPG (134 μmolesC m−2 d−1), was quite equivalent to the particles flux measured by sediments traps.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2007
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Biogeosciences
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2008
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-4-...
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      Biogeosciences
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      Biogeosciences
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-4-...
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    Authors: Santos, J. L.;

    The presence of ENSO Events in South America is felt in two ways: a) through its effects on both the atmosphere and ocean systems, and b) through its impacts on natural ecosystems (both marine and terrestrial) and on societal and economical sectors (like fisheries, health, and agriculture). The main effects of El Niño/La Niña are: Increment/Decrement of sea surface temperature and salinity, Increment/Decrement of sea level and wave activity, Increment/Decrement of air temperature and amount of ultra violet radiation reaching the surface of the earth, and Changes in the rainfall and evaporation patterns. It is not easy to make an "average" pattern of ENSO impacts for a variety of reasons: the impacts depend greatly of factors like geographical extent and position of the oceanic anomalies, and intensity and timing of the anomalies; also the influence of social, economic and political structures determines whether climate anomalies caused by ENSO in a particular region will lead to severe societal and economical impacts. The scientific community also plays a potential role in the extent of the impacts that ENSO can produce, if scientists can provide information on the impact of the presence of ENSO by identifying and focusing on its precursors, intervention could be taken early enough. There is however, something to be said against that: information can be misleading, target inappropriate at-risk groups, or generate a false sense of security.

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    Advances in Geosciences
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    Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)
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    Advances in Geosciences
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    Advances in Geosciences
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      Advances in Geosciences
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      Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)
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      Advances in Geosciences
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      Advances in Geosciences
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    Authors: N. Mihalopoulos; R. Hillamo; T. Mäkelä; S. Saarikoski; +4 Authors

    This work provides long-term (2004–2006) size segregated measurements of aerosol mass at a remote coastal station in the southern Europe, with the use of size-selective samplings (SDI impactor). Seven distinct modes were identified in the range 0–10 µm and the dominant were the "Accumulation 1" (0.25–0.55 µm) and the "Coarse 2" (3–7 µm) modes. The seasonal characteristics of each mode were thoroughly studied and different sources for submicron and supermicron particles were identified, the first being related to local/regional and transported pollution with maximum in summer and the latter to dust from deserted areas in Northern Africa maximizing in spring. On average, PM2.5 and PM1 accounted for 60% and 40% of PM10 mass, respectively.The representativity of the ground-based measurements for the total column was also investigated by comparing the measured aerosol mass distributions with the AERONET volume size distribution data. Similar seasonal patterns were revealed and AERONET was found adequate for the estimation of background levels of both fine and coarse particles near surface, with certain limitations in the case of pollution or dust abrupt episodes due to its low temporal coverage.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-7...
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-7...
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    Authors: Landolfi, A.; Oschlies, A.; Sanders, R.;

    International audience; To enable an accurate estimate of total excess nitrogen (N) in the North Atlantic a new tracer, TNxs, is defined which includes the contribution of organic nutrients to the assessment of N:P stoichiometric anomalies. We estimate the spatial distribution of TNxs within the North Atlantic using data from a trans-Atlantic section across 24.5° N conducted in 2004. We then employ three different approaches to infer rates of total excess nitrogen accumulation using pCFC-12 derived ventilation ages (a TNxs vertical integration, a one end-member and a two-end member mixing model). Despite some variability among the different methods the dissolved organic nutrient fraction always contributes to about half of the TNxs accumulation, which is in the order of 9.38±4.18×1011 mol N y?1. Here we suggest that neglecting organic nutrients in stoichiometric balances of the marine N and P inventories can lead to systematic errors when estimating a nitrogen excess or deficit relative to the Redfield ratio in the oceans. For the North Atlantic the inclusion of the organic fraction leads to an upward revision of the N supply by N2 fixation to 10.2±6.9×1011 mol N y?1. This enhanced estimate of nitrogen fixation reconciles the geochemical estimates of N2 fixation derived from excess nitrate and the direct estimates from N2 fixation measurements.

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    OceanRep
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-5-...
    Preprint . 2008
    License: CC BY
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Biogeosciences; CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . Preprint
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      OceanRep
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2008
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-5-...
      Preprint . 2008
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2018
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      Biogeosciences; CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Biogeosciences
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    Authors: White, M.; Bowyer, P.;

    Measurements of the slope current at two locations north-west of Ireland have been made between April and December 1994, 40 m above the seabed in a water depth of 660 m. A persistent poleward along-slope current was observed at both locations, with measured means of 10 and 21cms<sup>–1</sup> respectively. A CTD transect across the slope near one mooring indicated the presence of a light, warm, saline core of water at the shelf edge. Peak currents were <i>O</i>(50)cms<sup>–1</sup>, with strongest mean flow at the location with steeper slope. Variability at sub-tidal periods, principally 2–5 and 11–12 days, was apparent. The shorter-period variability was well correlated with coastal sea-level variations measured at a land point near to one of the moorings. The variability in the slope current at this period appeared to be a result of the warm current core movement up/down slope, probably as a result of interaction with higher-mode shelf waves. Some suggestion of a bottom-trapped diurnal wave was also found at one location.

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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article
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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
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    Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 1997
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 1997
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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
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      Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
      Other literature type . 2018
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      Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . 1997
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      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 1997
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Patrice Loisel; Pierre Cartigny;

    aeres : C-COM; International audience; The safeguarding of resources is one of the principal subjects of halieutics studies. Among the solutions proposed to avert the disappearance of species, the setting in place of preservation (no take) reserves is often mentioned. Most work on this subject, theoretical as well as applied, was undertaken in recent years. In this paper, we seek to compare two different models presented in existing literature by highlighting their underlying assumptions. Both models were derived from what is often referred to as the "model of Schaefer-Clark" (reference to the work of the last author on Mathematical Bioeconomics: Clark [C.W. Clark, Mathematical Bioecomics: The Optimal Management of Renewable Resources, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons, New-York, 1990]). We show that various variations of this model lead to properties that can be very different.

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    Nonlinear Analysis Real World Applications
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2013
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Authors: Defew, E. C.; Tolhurst, T. J.; Paterson, D. M.;

    International audience; The factors that influence the sediment stability and the transport of estuarine mudflats are not yet fully understood but knowledge of them is essential in coastal engineering applications and pollution ecology studies. The suggestion that variation in predictive models of sediment stability might be due to site-specific characteristics is investigated using data from four estuarine mudflats (Eden Estuary, Scotland, the Biezelingsche Ham, Zandkreek, and Molenplaat mudflats in The Netherlands). These estuaries differ in their environmental conditions, macrofaunal species composition and local features (e.g. Enteromorpha mats, migratory biofilms). Stable and unstable sediments were compared, and mean chlorophyll-a concentrations and granulometry of the sediments were significantly different between the two groups. Step-wise multiple linear regressions were applied to the sediment stability data of all sites to establish the influences on erosion threshold of microphytobenthic biomass, water content, granulometry, organic carbon content and the abundance of dominant macrofaunal species. The stability of each site was influenced by different factors. Sediment stability of the Eden Estuary was affected by the Enteromorpha bloom; Biezelingsche Ham was influenced by the highly migratory nature of the diatom biofilms and the abundance of Corophium volutator; the polychaete worm Arenicola marina had a net negative effect on sediment stability of the Zandkreek; and the Molenplaat was influenced by microphytobenthic biomass. This research highlights the need for site-specific calibration of models and suggests that a universal proxy parameter for sediment stability is unlikely to be obtained. Keywords: sediment stability; erosion threshold; cohesive strength meter; microphytobenthos; Enteromorpha spp.

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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article
    License: CC BY ND SA
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2002
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2002
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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      License: CC BY ND SA
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2002
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2002
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot