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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Beaugrand, Gregory; Edwards, Martin; Raybaud, Virginie; Goberville, Eric; +1 Authors

    Many studies have implied significant effects of global climate change on marine life. Setting these alterations into the context of historical natural change has not been attempted so far, however. Here, using a theoretical framework, we estimate the sensitivity of marine pelagic biodiversity to temperature change and evaluate its past (mid-Pliocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)), contemporaneous (1960–2013) and future (2081–2100; 4 scenarios of warming) vulnerability. Our biodiversity reconstructions were highly correlated to real data for several pelagic taxa for the contemporary and the past (LGM and mid-Pliocene) periods. Our results indicate that local species loss will be a prominent phenomenon of climate warming in permanently stratified regions, and that local species invasion will prevail in temperate and polar biomes under all climate change scenarios. Although a small amount of warming under the RCP2.6 scenario is expected to have a minor influence on marine pelagic biodiversity, moderate warming (RCP4.5) will increase by threefold the changes already observed over the past 50 years. Of most concern is that severe warming (RCP6.0 and 8.5) will affect marine pelagic biodiversity to a greater extent than temperature changes that took place between either the LGM or the mid-Pliocene and today, over an area of between 50 (RCP6.0: 46.9–52.4%) and 70% (RCP8.5: 69.4–73.4%) of the global ocean. International audience

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Nature Climate Chang...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Nature Climate Change
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gerardo I. Zardi; Jonathan Monsinjon; Christopher D. McQuaid; Laurent Seuront; +4 Authors

    Temperature extremes are predicted to intensify with climate change. These extremes are rapidly emerging as a powerful driver of species distributional changes with the capacity to disrupt the functioning and provision of services of entire ecosystems, particularly when they challenge ecosystem engineers. The subsequent search for a robust framework to forecast the consequences of these changes mostly ignores within-species variation in thermal sensitivity. Such variation can be intrinsic, but can also reflect species interactions. Intertidal mussels are important ecosystem engineers that host symbiotic endoliths in their shells. These endoliths unexpectedly act as conditionally beneficial parasites that enhance the host's resistance to intense heat stress. To understand how this relationship may be altered under environmental change, we examined the conditions under which it becomes advantageous by reducing body temperature. We deployed biomimetic sensors (robomussels), built using shells of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) that were or were not infested by endoliths, at nine European locations spanning a temperature gradient across 22 degrees of latitude (Orkney, Scotland to the Algarve, Portugal). Daily wind speed and solar radiation explained the maximum variation in the difference in temperature between infested and non-infested robomussels; the largest difference occurred under low wind speed and high solar radiation. From the robomussel data, we inferred body temperature differences between infested and non-infested mussels during known heatwaves that induced mass mortality of the mussel Mytilus edulis along the coast of the English Channel in summer 2018 to quantify the thermal advantage of endolith infestation during temperature extremes. Under these conditions, endoliths provided thermal buffering of between 1.7 degrees C and 4.8 degrees C. Our results strongly suggest that sustainability of intertidal mussel beds will increasingly depend on the thermal buffering provided by endoliths. More generally, this work shows that biomimetic models indicate that within-species thermal sensitivity to global warming can be modulated by species interactions, using an intertidal host-symbiont relationship as an example. Fundacao para a Ciencia e TecnologiaPortuguese Foundation for Science and TechnologyEuropean Commission [UIDB/04326/2020]; National Research Foundation of South AfricaNational Research Foundation - South Africa [64801]; Department of Science and TechnologyDepartment of Science & Technology (India); National FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF); South African National Research FoundationNational Research Foundation - South Africa; French Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche; Hauts de France RegionRegion Hauts-de-France; European Funds for Regional Economical Development info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL - Université de ...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Article . 2021
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: M F, McLoughlin; D A, Graham; A, Norris; D, Matthews; +5 Authors

    Pancreas disease (PD) of farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., which is caused by an alphavirus known as salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV), can have serious economic consequences. An epidemiological survey carried out in Ireland in 2003 indicated that within individual farms there were significant differences in the susceptibility of different strains of farmed Atlantic salmon to infection with SPDV, as measured by levels of clinical disease and mortality. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate this field observation by comparing lesion development, viraemia and serological responses of 3 commercial strains of Atlantic salmon (A, B and C) experimentally infected with SPDV. Highly significant differences in the severity of lesions in the pancreas at Day 21 post-infection (pi) were detected (p < 0.01), with Group B being more severely affected. There were also significant differences in the prevalence and severity of lesions in heart and skeletal muscle at Day 21 and 35 pi respectively, with Group B results again significantly higher than those from both Groups A and C (p < 0.05). There was no overlap between viraemia and the presence of specific SPDV antibody. Some fish in all groups had no viraemia, lesions or evidence of seroconversion. There were no significant differences seen between the challenged groups in relation to the percentage of viraemic fish at each time point. Viral loads were not determined. Differences between the number of antibody-positive fish in each challenge group were found at Days 28 and 35 pi (p < 0.1). Highly significant differences (p < 0.01) in the geometric mean titres of seropositive fish were detected at Day 28. These results, obtained using a challenge model, confirm that there are strain differences in the susceptibility to experimental SPDV infection in commercial farmed Atlantic salmon.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Diseases of Aquatic ...arrow_drop_down
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    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Diseases of Aquatic ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
      Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tappin, D. R.; Watts, P.; Grilli, S. T.;

    Abstract. The Papua New Guinea (PNG) tsunami of July 1998 was a seminal event because it demonstrated that relatively small and relatively deepwater Submarine Mass Failures (SMFs) can cause devastating local tsunamis that strike without warning. There is a comprehensive data set that proves this event was caused by a submarine slump. Yet, the source of the tsunami has remained controversial. This controversy is attributed to several causes. Before the PNG event, it was questionable as to whether SMFs could cause devastating tsunamis. As a result, only limited modelling of SMFs as tsunami sources had been undertaken, and these excluded slumps. The results of these models were that SMFs in general were not considered to be a potential source of catastrophic tsunamis. To effectively model a SMF requires fairly detailed geological data, and these too had been lacking. In addition, qualitative data, such as evidence from survivors, tended to be disregarded in assessing alternative tsunami sources. The use of marine geological data to identify areas of recent submarine failure was not widely applied. The disastrous loss of life caused by the PNG tsunami resulted in a major investigation into the area offshore of the devastated coastline, with five marine expeditions taking place. This was the first time that a focussed, large-scale, international programme of marine surveying had taken place so soon after a major tsunami. It was also the first time that such a comprehensive data set became the basis for tsunami simulations. The use of marine mapping subsequently led to a larger involvement of marine geologists in the study of tsunamis, expanding the knowledge base of those studying the threat from SMF hazards. This paper provides an overview of the PNG tsunami and its impact on tsunami science. It presents revised interpretations of the slump architecture based on new seabed relief images and, using these, the most comprehensive tsunami simulation of the PNG event to date. Simulation results explain the measured runups to a high degree. The PNG tsunami has made a major impact on tsunami science. It is one of the most studied SMF tsunamis, yet it remains the only one known of its type: a slump.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
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    License: CC BY ND SA
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2008
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2008
      Data sources: DOAJ
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2008
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
      Data sources: Crossref
      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: V. O. Ivchenko; S. D. Danilov; D. V. Sidorenko; J. Schröter; +2 Authors

    Abstract. Anomalies of dynamic height derived from an analysis of Argo profiling buoys data are analysed to assess the relative roles of contributions from temperature and salinity over the North Atlantic for the period of 1999–2004. They are compared with dynamic topography anomalies based on TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason altimetry. It is shown that the halosteric contribution to the anomalies of dynamic height is comparable in magnitude to the thermosteric one over the period analyzed. Taking both salinity and temperature into account improves the agreement between zonally averaged trends in the satellite dynamic topography and dynamic height increasing the correlation between them to 0.73 from 0.63 when only temperature variability is taken into account. The implication of this result is that the salinity contribution cannot be neglected in the North Atlantic and that one cannot rely on estimating the thermosteric part by anomalies in the sea surface dynamic topography derived from the satellite altimetry.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/osd-4-...
    Preprint . 2007
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2007
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2007
    Data sources: DOAJ
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    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 2007
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2007
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    Ocean Science
    Article . 2007
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Ocean Science (OS)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Ocean Science
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    Ocean Science
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/osd-4-...
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      Ocean Science
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      Ocean Science
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    Authors: Diego Robledo; Juan A. Rubiolo; Santiago Cabaleiro; Paulino Martínez; +1 Authors

    Growth is among the most important traits for animal breeding. Understanding the mechanisms underlying growth differences between individuals can contribute to improving growth rates through more efficient breeding schemes. Here, we report a transcriptomic study in muscle and brain of fast- and slow-growing turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), a relevant flatfish in European and Asian aquaculture. Gene expression and allelic association between the two groups were explored. Up-regulation of the anaerobic glycolytic pathway in the muscle of fast-growing fish was observed, indicating a higher metabolic rate of white muscle. Brain expression differences were smaller and not associated with major growth-related genes, but with regulation of feeding-related sensory pathways. Further, SNP variants showing frequency differences between fast- and slow-growing fish pointed to genomic regions likely involved in growth regulation, and three of them were individually validated through SNP typing. Although different mechanisms appear to explain growth differences among families, general mechanisms seem also to be involved, and thus, results provide a set of useful candidate genes and markers to be evaluated for more efficient growth breeding programs and to perform comparative genomic studies of growth in fish and vertebrates This work was funded by Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and European Regional Development Funds (AGL2012-35904), Ministry of Science and Innovation (Consolider Ingenio, Aquagenomics, CSD2007-00002), and Local Government. Xunta de Galicia (GRC2014/010). DR was supported by a FPU fellowship funded by Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (AP2012-0254) and a postdoctoral contract funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Science Research Council (BBSRC) grant BB/N024044/1 SI

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    Scientific Reports
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    Scientific Reports
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    Authors: Cuif, J.P.; Ball, A.D.; Dauphin, Y.; Farre, B.; +4 Authors

    AbstractA series of Polynesian pearls has been investigated with particular attention to the structural and compositional patterns of the early developmental stages of the pearl layer. These initial steps in pearl formation bear witness of the metabolic changes that have occurred during the pearl-sac formation. The resulting structurally and biochemically complex structures have been investigated using a variety of techniques that provide us with information concerning both mineral phases and the organic components. Results are discussed with respect to our understanding of the biomineralization mechanisms, as well as for the grafting process.

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    Microscopy and Microanalysis
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2008
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      Microscopy and Microanalysis
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    Authors: G, Lindgren; J E, Swinburne; M, Breen; D, Mariat; +4 Authors

    A horse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened for 19 microsatellite markers from unassigned or non‐oriented linkage groups. Clones containing 11 (AHT20, EB2E8, HMS45, LEX005, LEX014, LEX023, LEX044, TKY111, UCDEQ425, UCDEQ464 and VIASH21) of these were found, which were from eight different linkage groups. The BAC clones were used as probes in dual colour FISH to identify their precise chromosomal origin. The microsatellite markers are located on nine different horse chromosomes, four of which (ECA6, ECA25, ECA27 and ECA28) had no previously in situ assigned markers.

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    Animal Genetics
    Article . 2001 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2001
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      Animal Genetics
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    Authors: Bodin, Stephane; Godet, Alexis; Foellmi, Karl B.; Vermeulen, Jean; +4 Authors

    In the uppermost Hauterivian sediments of the western Tethys, a short-lived anoxic event (Faraom event) is documented both in the form of an interval enriched in organic matter (pelagic realm) and in a condensed interval enriched in glauconite and phosphate (shelf realm). This latter interval represents the onset of a drowning episode on the Helvetic carbonate platform along the northern tethyan margin that lasted throughout the early Barremian. This drowning episode marks a turning point in the way the platform carbonate factory functioned: during the Hauterivian carbonate production was dominated by heterozoans, whereas during the late Bafferman a photozoan assemblage developed that is preserved in the so-called Urgonian limestone. The late Hauterivian Faraom oceanic anoxic event is of particular interest because it is not accompanied by a major positive shift in delta C-13 unlike other oceanic anoxic events during the Cretaceous (Valanginian, early Aptian, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary).We have analyzed four (hemi-)pelagic sections with regards to their phosphorus content to better understand the palaeoceanographic conditions related to this anoxic event and the associated changes in the shallow-water carbonate factory. The sections are located in Angles (SE France), Fiume-Bosso and Gorgo a Cerbara (central Italy), and Veveyse de Chatel-St. Denis (west Switzerland). We calculated phosphorus mass accumulation rates by using a cyclostratigraphic approach in order to obtain an adequate age model. We observe a comparable and correlatable long-term trend for the four sections, which suggests that the phosphorus mass accumulation rates and temporal changes therein are representative for the western tethyan pelagic realm. The Faraom event is marked by a minimum in phosphorus accumulation and a positive shift in the C-org/P-tot ratios, which is interpreted as a reflection of the decreased capacity of storing and preserving phosphorus in oxygen-depleted sediments. Moreover, the onset in the decrease in phosphorus accumulation coincides with a sea level rise, while the Faraoni level itself corresponds to a maximum flooding interval. This phase of sea-level rise may have been important in the establishment of marine connections between the boreal and tethyan realms and, as such, in the exchange of nutrient-enriched waters. The model for the origin of the Faraom oceanic anoxic event proposed here incorporates these aspects together with a positive feedback loop generated by phosphorus regeneration and a negative feedback loop related to changes in the ocean oxygen cycle.The subsequent long-term changes in phosphorus burial rates during the Barremian suggest that the Faraom event marks the onset of a long period of environmental instability with regards to platform growth, leading to periodic phases of eutrophication and drowning of the northern tethyan carbonate platform. This environmental crisis ended during the late Barremian with the onset of the deposition of the Urgonian limestone under oligotrophic conditions. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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    Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2006
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Palaeogeography Pala...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology
      Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2006
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: T. J. Roberts; L. Jourdain; P. T. Griffiths; M. Pirre;

    Abstract. The reactive uptake of HOBr onto halogen-rich aerosols promotes conversion of Br−(aq) into gaseous reactive bromine (incl. BrO) with impacts on tropospheric oxidants and mercury deposition. However, experimental data quantifying HOBr reactive uptake on tropospheric aerosols is limited, and reported values vary in magnitude. This study re-examines the reaction kinetics of HOBr across a range of aerosol acidity conditions, focusing on chemistry within the marine boundary layer and volcanic plumes. We highlight that the termolecular approach to HOBr reaction kinetics, used in numerical model studies to date, is strictly only valid over a specific pH range. Here we re-evaluate the reaction kinetics of HOBr according to the general acid assisted mechanism. The rate of reaction of HOBr with halide ions becomes independent of pH at high acidity yielding an acid-independent second-order rate constant, kII. The limit of acid-saturation is poorly constrained by available experimental data, although a reported estimate for HOBr+ Br−(aq)+H+(aq), is kIIsat = 108–109 M−1 s−1, at pH &amp;lesssim; 1. By consideration of halide nucleophilic strength and re-evaluation of reported uptake coefficient data on H2SO4-acidified sea-salt aerosol, we suggest the reaction of HOBr(aq) + Cl−(aq)+H+(aq) may saturate to become acid-independent at pH ≤ 6, with kIIsat ~104 M−1 s−1. This rate constant is multiple orders of magnitude lower (a factor of 103 at pH = 3 and a factor of 106 at pH = 0) than that currently assumed in numerical models of tropospheric BrO chemistry, which are based on the termolecular approach. Reactive uptake coefficients, γHOBr, were calculated as a function of composition using the revised HOBr kinetics, with kI = kII · [X−(aq)], and X = Br or Cl. γHOBr initially increases with acidity but subsequently declines with increasing H2SO4-acidification of sea-salt aerosol. The HOBr+Cl− uptake coefficient declines due to acid-displacement of HCl(g), reducing [Cl−(aq)]. The HOBr+Br− uptake coefficient also declines at very high H2SO4:Na ratios due to dilution of [Br−(aq)]. The greatest reductions in HOBr uptake coefficients occur for small particle sizes, across which the probability of diffusion of HOBr(aq) without reaction is highest. Our new uptake calculations are consistent with all reported experimental data thus resolve previously reported discrepancies within a unified uptake coefficient framework. The following implications for BrO chemistry in the marine boundary layer are highlighted: we confirm HOBr reactive uptake is rapid on moderately acidified supramicron aerosol, but predict very low HOBr reactive uptake coefficients on the highly-acidified submicron marine aerosol fraction. This re-evaluation is in contrast to the high HOBr reactive uptake previously assumed to occur on all acidified sea-salt aerosol. Instead, our uptake evaluation indicates that particle bromide in the submicron aerosol fraction is not easily depleted by HOBr uptake, and furthermore can be augmented by deposition of gas-phase bromine released from the supramicron particles. We present this mechanism as a first explanation for the observed (but previously unexplained) Br-enhancement (relative to Na) in submicron particles in the marine environment. Further, we find HOBr reactive uptake on acidified sea-salt aerosol is driven by reaction of HOBr+Br− rather than HOBr+Cl− (γHOBr + Br− > γHOBr−+Cl−) once HCl-displacement has occurred. Thus, the reduction in γHOBr + Br− as BrO chemistry progresses (noting γHOBr + Br− is a function of aerosol Br−(aq) concentration which declines as aerosol bromide is converted into gaseous-phase reactive bromine) will have greater importance in slowing overall HOBr reactive uptake as BrO chemistry evolves than has been assumed previously. We suggest both the above factors may explain the reported overprediction of BrO cycling in the marine environment by numerical models to date. First predictions of HOBr reactive uptake on sulphate particles in tropospheric volcanic plumes are presented. High (accommodation limited) HOBr+Br− uptake coefficient in concentrated (>1 ppmv SO2) plume environments supports rapid BrO formation under all conditions. However, the HOBr + Cl− uptake coefficient exhibits an inverse temperature trend which becomes more pronounced as the plume disperses. The HOBr+Br− coefficient also declines with temperature in dilute (~ppbv SO2) plumes. We infer that BrO chemistry can readily be sustained in downwind plumes entering the mid- to-upper troposphere, e.g. either from continuous degassing from elevated volcano summits (e.g. Etna, 3.3 km a.s.l.) or episodic eruptions (e.g. Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland). However, low HOBr reactive uptake coefficients may limit sustained BrO cycling in dilute plumes in the lower troposphere. In summary, our revised HOBr kinetics that includes acid-saturation indicates that current numerical models of BrO chemistry in the troposphere substantially overestimate the rate of HOBr reactive uptake on acidic halogen rich-particles, with implications for BrO chemistry in both the marine environment and volcanic plumes, as well as the wider troposphere.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: DOAJ
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2014
    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.5...arrow_drop_down
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2014
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Other literature type . 2014
      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao