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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gerardo I. Zardi; Jonathan Monsinjon; Christopher D. McQuaid; Laurent Seuront; +4 Authors

    Temperature extremes are predicted to intensify with climate change. These extremes are rapidly emerging as a powerful driver of species distributional changes with the capacity to disrupt the functioning and provision of services of entire ecosystems, particularly when they challenge ecosystem engineers. The subsequent search for a robust framework to forecast the consequences of these changes mostly ignores within-species variation in thermal sensitivity. Such variation can be intrinsic, but can also reflect species interactions. Intertidal mussels are important ecosystem engineers that host symbiotic endoliths in their shells. These endoliths unexpectedly act as conditionally beneficial parasites that enhance the host's resistance to intense heat stress. To understand how this relationship may be altered under environmental change, we examined the conditions under which it becomes advantageous by reducing body temperature. We deployed biomimetic sensors (robomussels), built using shells of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) that were or were not infested by endoliths, at nine European locations spanning a temperature gradient across 22 degrees of latitude (Orkney, Scotland to the Algarve, Portugal). Daily wind speed and solar radiation explained the maximum variation in the difference in temperature between infested and non-infested robomussels; the largest difference occurred under low wind speed and high solar radiation. From the robomussel data, we inferred body temperature differences between infested and non-infested mussels during known heatwaves that induced mass mortality of the mussel Mytilus edulis along the coast of the English Channel in summer 2018 to quantify the thermal advantage of endolith infestation during temperature extremes. Under these conditions, endoliths provided thermal buffering of between 1.7 degrees C and 4.8 degrees C. Our results strongly suggest that sustainability of intertidal mussel beds will increasingly depend on the thermal buffering provided by endoliths. More generally, this work shows that biomimetic models indicate that within-species thermal sensitivity to global warming can be modulated by species interactions, using an intertidal host-symbiont relationship as an example. Fundacao para a Ciencia e TecnologiaPortuguese Foundation for Science and TechnologyEuropean Commission [UIDB/04326/2020]; National Research Foundation of South AfricaNational Research Foundation - South Africa [64801]; Department of Science and TechnologyDepartment of Science & Technology (India); National FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF); South African National Research FoundationNational Research Foundation - South Africa; French Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche; Hauts de France RegionRegion Hauts-de-France; European Funds for Regional Economical Development info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Global Change Biolog...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kantha, Lakshmi; Luce, Hubert;

    AbstractTurbulent mixing in the interior of the oceans is not as well understood as mixing in the oceanic boundary layers. Mixing in the generally stably stratified interior is primarily, although not exclusively, due to intermittent shear instabilities. Part of the energy extracted by the Reynolds stresses acting on the mean shear is expended in increasing the potential energy of the fluid column through a buoyancy flux, while most of it is dissipated. The mixing coefficient χm, the ratio of the buoyancy flux to the dissipation rate of turbulence kinetic energy ε, is an important parameter, since knowledge of χm enables turbulent diffusivities to be inferred. Theory indicates that χm must be a function of the gradient Richardson number. Yet, oceanic studies suggest that a value of around 0.2 for χm gives turbulent diffusivities that are in good agreement with those inferred from tracer studies. Studies by scientists working with atmospheric radars tend to reinforce these findings but are seldom referenced in oceanographic literature. The goal of this paper is to bring together oceanographic, atmospheric, and laboratory observations related to χm and to report on the values deduced from in situ data collected in the lower troposphere by unmanned aerial vehicles, equipped with turbulence sensors and flown in the vicinity of the Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan. These observations are consistent with past studies in the oceans, in that a value of around 0.16 for χm yields good agreement between ε derived from turbulent temperature fluctuations using this value and ε obtained directly from turbulence velocity fluctuations.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physical ...arrow_drop_down
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2018
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    Journal of Physical Oceanography
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physical ...arrow_drop_down
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2018
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      Journal of Physical Oceanography
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Point, D.; Bareille, Gilles; Stoichev, T.; Amouroux, David; +1 Authors

    International audience; Although the contamination of number of estuarine environments in the European Atlantic Coast has largely been studied [1-2], the Adour urban estuary watershed (southwestern, France) is poorly known. The estuarine part is characterized by an important anthropogenic pressure close to its mouth with large urban and industrial activities of Bayonne city. An environmental assessment program was funded to evaluate and quantify the anthropogenic pressure on the ecosystem. A preliminary sampling strategy was adopted to identify 25 specific sources of contaminants, monitored more extensively under four campaigns. Data treatment allows to trace effluent source and origin resulting in a specific classification. Trace metal concentrations were determined (filtrate (<0, 45 μm) and particulate fractions) for each effluent and combined with discharge flow measurements to establish anthropogenic net fluxes. Industrial effluents presents the highest concentrations observed, followed by waste landfield drainage and sewage effluents. The large variability in terms of effluent characteristics and concentrations observed, can be explained by strong relationship between trace elements and both organic matter level (TOC) and flow rate. This study point out the dominance of upstream inputs compared to downstream localized sources, but their influence into the estuarine ecosystem during low discharge conditions (summer) lead to a maximum metal impact.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Gaudet, J.P.; Gerino, M.; Desrosiers, G.; +2 Authors

    Summary1. Our objective was to measure the effects of bioturbation and predation on the physical characteristics and biogeochemical processes in river sediments.2. We investigated the impacts of tubificid worms tested separately and together with an omnivore (Gammarus pulex), which does feed on tubificids, on sediment distribution, water flux, sediment organic carbon, biofilm biomass and microbial activities, and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, PO, NO, NO and NH in slow filtration sand–gravel columns. We hypothesised that gammarids, which exploit the top 2–3 cm of the sediment, would modify the impact of worms at the sediment surface.3. In experiments both with and without gammarids, bioturbation by the tubificids modified both the distribution of surface particles in the sediment column and water flux. In addition, microbial aerobic (oxygen consumption) and anaerobic (denitrification and fermentative decomposition of organic matter) processes in the sediment were stimulated in the presence of tubificid worms. However, G. pulex did not affect either the density or bioturbation activity of the tubificid worms.4. Bioturbation by the benthos can be a major process in river habitats, contributing to the retention of organic matter in sediment dynamics. The presence of at least one predator had no effect on bioturbation in sediments. In such systems, physical heterogeneity may be sufficient for tubificids to escape from generalist predators, though more specialised ones might have more effect.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Freshwater Biologyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Freshwater Biology
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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    Other literature type . Article . 2004
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Freshwater Biologyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Freshwater Biology
      Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Aussem, Alexandre; Hill, David R.C.;

    Abstract This paper addresses the use of neural networks as a metamodelling technique for discrete event stochastic simulation to reduce significantly the computational burden involved by the simulations. A sophisticated computer model has been developed to anticipate the propagation of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia in the northwestern Mediterranean sea. The simulation model provides reliable predictions, a couple of years in advance, of the covered surfaces. To reduce the heavy computational burden involved by the simulation, a neural network was successfully trained on artificially generated data provided by the simulation runs to provide accurate forecasts 12 years in advance, along with associated confidence intervals. The neural-network metamodel is competitive in accuracy when compared to the simulation itself and, once trained, can operate in nearly real time.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Neurocomputingarrow_drop_down
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    Neurocomputing
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Other literature type . Article . 2000
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Neurocomputingarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Neurocomputing
      Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: de Naurois, M.; Holder, J.; Bazer-Bachi, R.; Bergeret, H.; +28 Authors

    We have converted the former solar electrical plant THEMIS (French Pyrenees) into an atmospheric Cherenkov detector called CELESTE, which records gamma rays above 30 GeV (7E24 Hz). Here we present the first sub-100 GeV detection by a ground based telescope of a gamma ray source, the Crab nebula, in the energy region between satellite measurements and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. At our analysis threshold energy of 60 +/- 20 GeV we measure a gamma ray rate of 6.1 +/- 0.8 per minute. Allowing for 30% systematic uncertainties and a 30% error on the energy scale yields an integral gamma ray flux of I(E>60 GeV) = 6.2^{+5.3}_{-2.3} E-6 photons m^-2 s^-1. The analysis methods used to obtain the gamma ray signal from the raw data are detailed. In addition, we determine the upper limit for pulsed emission to be <12% of the Crab flux at the 99% confidence level, in the same energy range. Our result indicates that if the power law observed by EGRET is attenuated by a cutoff of form e^{-E/E_0} then E_0 < 26 GeV. This is the lowest energy probed by a Cherenkov detector and leaves only a narrow range unexplored beyond the energy range studied by EGRET. 34 pages, accepted by the Astrophysical Journal

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Astrophysical Jo...arrow_drop_down
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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Article . 2002
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    The Astrophysical Journal
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2002
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2001
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      Oskar Bordeaux
      Article . 2002
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      The Astrophysical Journal
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2002
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2001
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  • Authors: Riaux-Gobin, Catherine; Witkowski, Andrzej; Jordan, Richard; Parravicini, Valeriano; +1 Authors

    International audience; During the ‘Tara Pacific 2016–2018 Expedition’, marine benthic diatom samples were collected from several Tuamotu atolls in the South Pacific. Preparation and examination of these samples were conducted following standard methods including light and scanning electron microscopy. A small-celled taxon from the genus Cocconeis Ehrenb. (Bacillariophyceae) is described from the Nukutavake reef, and compared to several other taxa for which the definition is not always clear (e.g., Cocconeis diruptoides Hust. and Cocconeis pseudodiruptoides Foged). The new taxon is present only on one of the investigated Tuamotu atolls, possibly indicating local endemism.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Antonelli, Laetitia; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard;

    International audience; The Gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata is one of the most important fish commonly cultured in the Mediterranean area. Outbreaks have significant effects on commercial production and could reduce the expansion of the industry in some countries. During a survey of Gilthead sea bream of Corsican fish farms, the biology of Furnestinia echeneis(Monogenea, Monopisthocotylea: Diplectanidae) under culture conditions was studied. The surface topography of F. echeneis was studied with scanning electron microscopy to give additional information about the lifestyle of the parasite. Morphological details, including tegumental features, not described previously were revealed. We studied mainly the adaptations of the parasite, i.e. sensory organs and haptor, enabling it to ensure the survival of the species. Rates of infestations of the parasite exhibited seasonal variations, with maximal infection levels occurring in autumn and minimal values recorded in spring. The influence of temperature on the life cycle of F. echeneis was also highlighted. The fluctuations in rates of infestations showed that water temperature has a great influence on population development.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Aquaculturearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Aquaculture
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Aquaculturearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Aquaculture
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Payri, Claude; Allain, Valérie; Aucan, Jérôme; David, Corinne; +7 Authors

    International audience; New Caledonia archipelago is located in the South West Pacific between Australia and the Vanuatu archipelago. The land covers 19,100 km2, and the EEZ and territorial waters extend to 1,450,000 km2. The main island, Grande Terre, is surrounded by a barrier reef of 1100 km length enclosing a large lagoon of 24,000 km2 and up to 60 m deep. The complexity of the maritime environment is controlled by both the westward South Equatorial Current and the border currents induced by its deflection against the islands. The climate is driven by the South Pacific Convergence Zone and fluctuates with ENSO events. Although rare, cyclones are a significant climatic risk in the country. Shallow coastal habitats consist of rich and diverse coral reef habitats and associated ecosystems including mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, macroalgal beds, and lagoonal soft bottoms which house tens of thousands of species. New Caledonia has low population densities (15 km− 2) and small urbanized areas. Most of the people live on the coast with two-thirds in the Greater Nouméa area. Despite the relatively low anthropogenic pressure on marine ecosystems, the development of mining industries is driving a range of environmental impacts and their associated ecological consequences. Subsidence fishing and agricultural activities are traditionally important for rural people. However, practices have changed considerably with the development of recreational fishing and with offshore fisheries with industrial long-lining. After attempts at seafood aquaculture (shrimps, oysters), a recent diversification is toward high-value marine resources (sea cucumber, microalgae). Maritime traffic including the cruise tourism industry has expanded by 10% over recent decades, requiring improvements of port infrastructure. Numerous regulations have been enacted for protection and conservation of marine species, areas, and habitats under the responsibility of provincial and government authorities. Two significant steps have been taken with the inscription in the World Heritage listing of half of the reefs and lagoonal areas and the creation of the Coral Sea Natural Park that represents 78% of France’s MPAs. This should help in maintaining the good environmental condition of the maritime areas of New Caledonia.

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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2019
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    https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
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    Authors: Khairi, Refzul; Coatanhay, Arnaud; Khenchaf, Ali;

    International audience; Radar Cross Section (RCS) from sea surface carries rich informations about sea states. Many works have been developed to compute RCS from this surface. The Classical Moment Method became an effective tool since it works for a very large class of surface shapes and scattering mechanisms. However, it requires a small mesh step ( =10) which produces a high number of unknowns. Besides, for a highly curved surface like the sea, we need a much smaller mesh step to avoid the factitious geometric discontinuities between the patches. In this work, we propose to use the Higher-Order Moment Method (HO-MoM) with NURBS patch to increase the mesh step into . We show that this method can solves the scattering problem with fewer number of unknowns.

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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2011
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    https://doi.org/10.1109/iceaa....
    Conference object . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Conference object . 2011
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gerardo I. Zardi; Jonathan Monsinjon; Christopher D. McQuaid; Laurent Seuront; +4 Authors

    Temperature extremes are predicted to intensify with climate change. These extremes are rapidly emerging as a powerful driver of species distributional changes with the capacity to disrupt the functioning and provision of services of entire ecosystems, particularly when they challenge ecosystem engineers. The subsequent search for a robust framework to forecast the consequences of these changes mostly ignores within-species variation in thermal sensitivity. Such variation can be intrinsic, but can also reflect species interactions. Intertidal mussels are important ecosystem engineers that host symbiotic endoliths in their shells. These endoliths unexpectedly act as conditionally beneficial parasites that enhance the host's resistance to intense heat stress. To understand how this relationship may be altered under environmental change, we examined the conditions under which it becomes advantageous by reducing body temperature. We deployed biomimetic sensors (robomussels), built using shells of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) that were or were not infested by endoliths, at nine European locations spanning a temperature gradient across 22 degrees of latitude (Orkney, Scotland to the Algarve, Portugal). Daily wind speed and solar radiation explained the maximum variation in the difference in temperature between infested and non-infested robomussels; the largest difference occurred under low wind speed and high solar radiation. From the robomussel data, we inferred body temperature differences between infested and non-infested mussels during known heatwaves that induced mass mortality of the mussel Mytilus edulis along the coast of the English Channel in summer 2018 to quantify the thermal advantage of endolith infestation during temperature extremes. Under these conditions, endoliths provided thermal buffering of between 1.7 degrees C and 4.8 degrees C. Our results strongly suggest that sustainability of intertidal mussel beds will increasingly depend on the thermal buffering provided by endoliths. More generally, this work shows that biomimetic models indicate that within-species thermal sensitivity to global warming can be modulated by species interactions, using an intertidal host-symbiont relationship as an example. Fundacao para a Ciencia e TecnologiaPortuguese Foundation for Science and TechnologyEuropean Commission [UIDB/04326/2020]; National Research Foundation of South AfricaNational Research Foundation - South Africa [64801]; Department of Science and TechnologyDepartment of Science & Technology (India); National FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF); South African National Research FoundationNational Research Foundation - South Africa; French Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche; Hauts de France RegionRegion Hauts-de-France; European Funds for Regional Economical Development info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    Authors: Kantha, Lakshmi; Luce, Hubert;

    AbstractTurbulent mixing in the interior of the oceans is not as well understood as mixing in the oceanic boundary layers. Mixing in the generally stably stratified interior is primarily, although not exclusively, due to intermittent shear instabilities. Part of the energy extracted by the Reynolds stresses acting on the mean shear is expended in increasing the potential energy of the fluid column through a buoyancy flux, while most of it is dissipated. The mixing coefficient χm, the ratio of the buoyancy flux to the dissipation rate of turbulence kinetic energy ε, is an important parameter, since knowledge of χm enables turbulent diffusivities to be inferred. Theory indicates that χm must be a function of the gradient Richardson number. Yet, oceanic studies suggest that a value of around 0.2 for χm gives turbulent diffusivities that are in good agreement with those inferred from tracer studies. Studies by scientists working with atmospheric radars tend to reinforce these findings but are seldom referenced in oceanographic literature. The goal of this paper is to bring together oceanographic, atmospheric, and laboratory observations related to χm and to report on the values deduced from in situ data collected in the lower troposphere by unmanned aerial vehicles, equipped with turbulence sensors and flown in the vicinity of the Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan. These observations are consistent with past studies in the oceans, in that a value of around 0.16 for χm yields good agreement between ε derived from turbulent temperature fluctuations using this value and ε obtained directly from turbulence velocity fluctuations.

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    Journal of Physical Oceanography
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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