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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Saillard , Marc; Forget , Philippe; Soriano , Gabriel; Joelson , Maminirina; +2 Authors

    Abstract In a first part, this paper describes radar experiments aimed at probing the sea surface from the coast. To capture small-scale changes in a coastal environment, a flexible high resolution, Doppler L-band radar with high resolution in range has been used. The data exhibit significant sensitivity to current and wind, which justifies the development of a model for inversion. The second part of the paper is thus devoted to our first attempt to model radar echoes, in order to accurately describe the influence of the geophysical parameters of interest. Here, the focus is put on waves generated by a local wind. The key point consists in taking properly into account non-linear hydrodynamic interactions between waves to generate a realistic moving sea surface. From the electromagnetic point of view, since standard low-frequency approximations no longer hold at L-band, a small-slope approximation has been implemented to compute the backscattered field. Numerical results show that for light winds (less than 5 m s −1 ) the model correctly predicts the behaviour of the data with respect to wind speed and direction. To cite this article: M. Saillard et al., C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

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    Comptes Rendus Physique
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Eichinger, Marie; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; van Wambeke, France; Lefèvre, Dominique; +1 Authors

    A Monod (1942) model was used to describe the interaction and dynamics between marine bacteria and labile-dissolved organic carbon (l-DOC) using data obtained from 36 biodegra- dation experiments. This model is governed by 2 state variables, DOC and bacterial biomass (BB), and 3 parameters, specific maximum assimilation rate (Vmax), half-saturation constant (KS) and bac- terial growth efficiency (BGE). The calibrations were obtained from biodegradation experiments carried out in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean over different seasons and at different depths. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine (1) which parameter had the greatest influence on the model, and (2) whether the model was robust with regard to experimental errors. Our results indicate that BGE is greater in surface layers than in deeper waters, with minimum values observed during winter. In contrast, the Vmax/KS ratio is inversely dependent on depth and does not show any seasonal trend. This reflects an increase in bacterial affinity for substrate with increasing depth (decrease of KS) and/or better specific maximum assimilation rates (increase of Vmax). The sensitivity and robust- ness analyses demonstrate that the model is more sensitive to the Vmax/KS ratio than to BGE, and that the parameters estimated are reliable. However, although the BGE values are close to those esti- mated experimentally, the use of a constant Vmax/KS ratio and BGE in a 1-dimensional model is not appropriate as these parameters should be described as variables that take depth and season into account.

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    Aquatic Microbial Ecology
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Nogaro, Géraldine; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; François-Carcaillet, Frédérique; Gaudet, Jean-Paul; +2 Authors

    Summary1. Invertebrate bioturbation can strongly affect water‐sediment exchanges in aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of invertebrates on the physical characteristics of an infiltration system clogged with fine sediment.2. Two taxa (chironomids and tubificids) with different bioturbation activities were studied in experimental slow infiltration columns filled with sand and gravel and clogged with a 2 cm layer of fine sediment at the surface. We measured the effects of each taxon separately and combined on hydraulic head, water mobility and sediment reworking.3. The results showed that invertebrates could reduce sediment clogging and this effect was linked to the functional mode of bioturbation of each group. Tubificid worms dug networks of galleries in the fine sediment, creating pathways for water flow, which reduced the clogging of sediment. In contrast, the U‐shaped tubes of chironomids were restricted to the superficial layer of fine sediments and did not modify the hydraulic conductivity of experimental columns. The combination of invertebrates did not show any interactive effects between tubificids and chironomids. The occurrence of 80 tubificids in the combination was enough to maintain the same hydraulic conductivity that 160 worms did in monospecific treatment.4. The invertebrates like tubificid worms can have a great benefit on functioning of clogged interfaces by maintaining high hydraulic conductivity, which contributes to increased water‐sediment exchanges and stimulates biogeochemical and microbial processes occurring in river sediments.

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    Freshwater Biology
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . 2006
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    Authors: Lafon, S.;

    La conservation marine est devenue un enjeu mondial. Les aires marines protégées sont maintenant un instrument au coeur des débats. Dans cette étude, est analysé le dialogue qui prit place durant la création du parc naturel marin de l’estuaire de la Gironde et de la mer des Pertuis dans le sud-ouest de la France en avril 2015. Cette étude analyse les différentes étapes de la concertation réalisée en amont de la création du parc marin et observe l’appropriation des enjeux (notamment environnementaux) par les participants. Cette étude montre que cette concertation permet l’appropriation des enjeux environnementaux grâce à la co-construction de connaissances socio-économiques et environnementales notamment autour de la question des ressources halieutiques. L’analyse des entretiens auprès des participants permet d’identifier également comment les différentes tensions advenues pendant le processus ont contribué à préparer la décision. Marine conservation is now an international issue. Protected marine areas are now a tool strongly discussed. In this study, the process of dialogue which took place during the creation of a recent park, the Pertuis and Gironde natural park in southwest France is analysed, in April 2015. Our research analyzes the different steps in the talk relating to the implementation of the marine park, and observes the appropriation of issues (especially environmental issues) by participants. This paper demonstrates that the dialogue process allows the co-construction of knowledge socio-économic and environnemental, especially for fish resources. The research identifies how the different sources of friction throughout the process contributed to the decision.

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    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2017
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    OpenEdition
    Article . 2017
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      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Samadi, Sarah; Corbari, Laure; Lorion, Julien; Hourdez, Stéphane; +4 Authors

    Since 80's, fauna associated to sunken woods has been collected during exploration cruises of the Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos cruises program (TDSB). In 2004 we started a specific program of cruises devoted to the exploration of sunken-wood habitats. Seven cruises provided sunken-wood organisms in depth ranging from 100-1 500 metres, at three locations corresponding to large basins of sunken-wood accumulation in the south west Pacific: (i) Philippines, (ii) Salomon islands and (iii) Vanuatu. Extra-samples from other TDSB cruises are also available. Indeed, far from these basins, pieces of woods are unevenly catch by trawling and dredging and these erratic substrata, found for example on seamounts, are usually colonized by a typical sunken wood fauna. To enhance the collection of species associated to organic substrata that are difficult to catch at the deep sea floor, we also immersed down traps containing different kinds of baits: pieces of wood, blue whale bones, green turtle shell, and stag horn. These experiments deployed between 12-30 months off New Caledionia and Vanuatu. Samples yielded an abundant and original fauna, notably Bathymodiolinae and Galatheids. Specific diversity of collected zoological groups with taxa specific to this habitat was explored using molecular tools. Here this paper, we report the preliminary finding about the biodiversity of major zoological groups but also fungi found during this program of cruises. 4th International Symposium on Chemosynthesis-Based Ecosystems - Hydrothermal Vents, Seeps and Other Reducing Habitats, Nago, JAPAN, JUN 29-JUL 03, 2009 International audience

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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2010
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    Authors: Payry, C.; Allain, V.; Aucan, J.; David, C; +7 Authors

    International audience; New Caledonia archipelago is located in the South West Pacific between Australia and the Vanuatu archipelago. The land covers 19,100 km2, and the EEZ and territorial waters extend to 1,450,000 km2. The main island, Grande Terre, is surrounded by a barrier reef of 1100 km length enclosing a large lagoon of 24,000 km2 and up to 60 m deep. The complexity of the maritime environment is controlled by both the westward South Equatorial Current and the border currents induced by its deflection against the islands. The climate is driven by the South Pacific Convergence Zone and fluctuates with ENSO events. Although rare, cyclones are a significant climatic risk in the country. Shallow coastal habitats consist of rich and diverse coral reef habitats and associated ecosystems including mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, macroalgal beds, and lagoonal soft bottoms which house tens of thousands of species. New Caledonia has low population densities (15 km− 2) and small urbanized areas. Most of the people live on the coast with two-thirds in the Greater Nouméa area. Despite the relatively low anthropogenic pressure on marine ecosystems, the development of mining industries is driving a range of environmental impacts and their associated ecological consequences. Subsidence fishing and agricultural activities are traditionally important for rural people. However, practices have changed considerably with the development of recreational fishing and with offshore fisheries with industrial long-lining. After attempts at seafood aquaculture (shrimps, oysters), a recent diversification is toward high-value marine resources (sea cucumber, microalgae). Maritime traffic including the cruise tourism industry has expanded by 10% over recent decades, requiring improvements of port infrastructure. Numerous regulations have been enacted for protection and conservation of marine species, areas, and habitats under the responsibility of provincial and government authorities. Two significant steps have been taken with the inscription in the World Heritage listing of half of the reefs and lagoonal areas and the creation of the Coral Sea Natural Park that represents 78% of France’s MPAs. This should help in maintaining the good environmental condition of the maritime areas of New Caledonia.

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    Other literature type . 2019
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    https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
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    Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
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    Authors: Striberny, Anja; Jørgensen, Even H.; Klopp, Christophe; Magnanou, Elodie;

    Background: The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) has a highly seasonal feeding cycle that comprises long periods of voluntary fasting and a short but intense feeding period during summer. Therefore, the charr represents an interesting species for studying appetite-regulating mechanisms in fish. Results: In this study, we compared the brain transcriptomes of fed and feed deprived charr over a 4 weeks trial during their summer feeding season. Despite prominent differences in body condition between fed and feed deprived charr at the end of the trial, feed deprivation affected the brain transcriptome only slightly. In contrast, the transcriptome differed markedly over time in both fed and feed deprived charr, indicating strong shifts in basic cell metabolic processes possibly due to season, growth, temperature, or combinations thereof. The GO enrichment analysis revealed that many biological processes appeared to change in the same direction in both fed and feed deprived fish. In the feed deprived charr processes linked to oxygen transport and apoptosis were down- and up-regulated, respectively. Known genes encoding for appetite regulators did not respond to feed deprivation. Gene expression of Deiodinase 2 (DIO2), an enzyme implicated in the regulation of seasonal processes in mammals, was lower in response to season and feed deprivation. We further found a higher expression of VGF (non-acronymic) in the feed deprived than in the fed fish. This gene encodes for a neuropeptide associated with the control of energy metabolism in mammals, and has not been studied in relation to regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis in fish. Conclusions: In the Arctic charr, external and endogenous seasonal factors for example the increase in temperature and their circannual growth cycle, respectively, evoke much stronger responses in the brain than 4 weeks feed deprivation. The absence of a central hunger response in feed deprived charr give support for a strong resilience to the lack of food in this high Arctic species. DIO2 and VGF may play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and need to be further studied in seasonal fish. Source at https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5874-z. © The Author(s). 2019

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    BMC Genomics
    Article . 2019
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    Article . 2019
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    BMC Genomics
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    BMC Genomics
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      BMC Genomics
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      BMC Genomics
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      BMC Genomics
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Ourgaud, M.; Ruitton, S.; Bell, J.D.; Letourneur, Yves; +2 Authors

    We compared the structure of a seagrass fish assemblage near a sewage outlet before and after improvements to wastewater treatment. To determine whether responses by the fish assemblage were due to changes in water quality or to other factors, comparisons were made with the structure of a fish assemblage from a nearby site unaffected by sewage effluent. Total species richness, density and biomass of fish, decreased at both sites over the 30-year period. An increase in mean trophic level near the sewage outlet following improvements in water quality indicated that wastewater treatment had another important effect. This result is consistent with the reductions in food webs supporting pelagic and benthic fishes that typically accompany decreases in nutrient inputs. Although improvements to wastewater treatment explained much of the variation in the structure of the fish assemblage at PC, our results also suggest that fishing and climate change, at both sites.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine Pollution Bul...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Marine Pollution Bulletin
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Tremblay, G.; Belzile, C.; Gosselin, Michel; Poulin, M.; +2 Authors

    A number of recent studies showed that photosynthetic picoeukaryotes are an active and often dominant component of Arctic algal assemblages. In order to place these observations in a large-scale context, samples were collected in the euphotic zone along a 3500 km transect across northern Baffin Bay, the Northwest Passage and the Beaufort Sea during late summer 2005. Picophy- toplankton ( 2 µm were identified and counted by light microscopy. Pigment composition of the total community was assessed by reverse-phase HPLC to determine the relative contribution of different algal groups. The spatial distribution of phytoplankton was heterogeneous along the transect. The highest abundance of picophytoplankton was observed in the Beaufort Sea/Northwest Passage region, whereas nanophytoplankton increased numerically toward the east- ern Canadian Arctic. Picophytoplankton abundance reached a maximum of 18 400 cells ml -1 and accounted for >70% of total cell counts in two-thirds of the samples. The <2 µm size fraction held a similar share of total chl a, which reached a maximum of 6 µg l -1 . Overall, the picophytoplankton community was strongly dominated by eukaryotes (presumably the Prasinophyceae Micromonas). Maximum abundances of picocyanobacteria (120 cells ml -1 ) were observed in brackish waters of the Beaufort Sea. These results confirm that picophytoplankton can dominate not only in warm oligo- trophic waters, but also in a perennially cold ocean during late summer.

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    Aquatic Microbial Ecology
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Marine Cornuault; Laurence Vidal; Kazuyo Tachikawa; Laetitia Licari; +3 Authors

    International audience; The response of eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) circulation to climate forcings over the last 95 kyr BP was studied using core MD04-2722, collected at 1780 m water depth within the Levantine Sea. Foraminiferal stable isotopes and benthic assemblages were combined in order to reconstruct deep water ventilation and oxygenation in relation to surface water freshening. Over the last deglaciation, benthic foraminiferal δ13C values and oxygen index decreased, while the δ18O gradient between benthic and planktonic foraminifera increased. The results, respectively, indicate slower ventilation, bottom water oxygen depletion, and stronger stratification prior to S1 sapropel deposition. A combination of deglacial sea level rise and fresher north Atlantic surface water contributions were determined to be a precondition for S1 formation within the Levantine Sea. Local Nile River freshwater supplied during the African Humid Period further strengthened water column stratification. As for S3 deposit, the central role of monsoonal precipitation was estimated. For the last glacial period, three events at around 53, 46 and 37 ka BP were marked by a deep water circulation reduction at the core location. Considering the influence of north Atlantic surface water salinity on Mediterranean Sea circulation, we propose that the 46 and 37 ka BP events are responses to Heinrich Events 4 and 5 that supplied fresher surface water to the Mediterranean Sea. Since the ‘53 ka event’ was also characterized by the appearance of low oxygen benthic indicators as observed within the S1 and S3 layers, we tentatively attributed it to ‘missing’ sapropel S2. Our results indicate that intense stagnation within the EMS could occur when both the local freshwater supply and fresher north Atlantic surface water are contributors. The influence of north Atlantic conditions was significant to EMS circulation under warm and cold climate conditions.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Palaeogeography Pala...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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