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    Authors: Mury, Antoine; Collin, Antoine; James, Dorothée; Pastol, Yves; +1 Authors

    International audience; Among the consequences of global changes, an increase of coastal risks is widely expected. Indeed, the sea-level rise conjugated with spring tides and hazardous storms, can lead to extreme sea-levels, in worldwide coastal areas subject to unprecedented demographic exposure, thus risks. In this context, many methods, using conventional engineering or soft management, are used or experimented to reduce the coastal risk of marine flooding, thus protecting the human stakes. Coastal wetlands and especially salt marsh areas, can play a major role into the risk mitigation by acting as a natural buffer zone. Indeed, the various plant communities, which composed the salt marshes, have the potential to alleviate hazards by reducing the significant wave height and reducing the wave energy. Therefore, the quantification of this attenuation capability, through pressure gauges, is an essential element for the understanding of coastal territories and their dynamics. The mapping of the wave attenuation induced by the several plant communities is an efficient tool for coastal managers to take account of this natural buffer zone into urban spatial planning. However, the very high spatial resolution (VHR) quantification and mapping of this wave attenuation remains confined to numerical modellers unfortunately correlated with a poor level of stakeholders' outreach. We propose here a simple but robust solution to quantify and map the VHR wave attenuation service offered by a coastal salt marsh using an easy-to-implement combination of in situ pressure measurements and in silico optical imagery. The methodology, applied to a salt marsh in the western part of Mont-Saint-Michel bay (France), consists in several steps: 1) wave height and energy data acquisition using 10 pressure sensors distributed along two different cross-shore transect (approximatively 15 million data for each tide cycle) at a 2 Hz frequency; 2) identification and mapping of species composition of the salt marsh, using in situ and UAV imageries through three optical bands (blue, green, red); 3) quantification of attenuation values along the two cross-shore transects using ad hoc signal processing; 4) spatially-explicit modelling of the discretely-measured attenuation values to the entire salt marsh by means of the continuously-acquired UAV optical imagery deprived of, and provided with, the digital elevation model derived from the photogrammetry of the UAV imagery, so as to integrate the attenuation of the structural complexity.

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    Other literature type . 2019
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    Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Lambert, O; de Muizon, C; Varas-Malca, RM; Urbina, M; +1 Authors

    Among the many hyper-longirostrine dolphins (Odontoceti) from the Miocene, members of the family Eurhinodelphinidae bear two highly distinctive cranial features: a long and edentulous premaxillary portion of the rostrum and a mandible that is significantly shorter than the rostrum. Until now, unambiguously attributed members of this clade were only recorded from early to middle Miocene deposits of the North Atlantic realm (east coast U.S.A., North Sea Basin, and Mediterranean). In this work we describe and compare two partial skulls of longirostrine dolphins from late early Miocene (Burdigalian, 19.25-18 Ma) marine deposits of the Chilcatay Formation, in the East Pisco Basin (southern coast of Peru), preserving rostral and mandibular material, as well as ear bones. Based on these specimens we report diagnostic remains attributable to this family for the first time for the whole Southern Hemisphere and the whole Pacific Ocean. This major expansion of eurhinodelphinids' palaeogeographic distribution contrasts with their proposed shallow-water, coastal environments; it suggests a new dispersal route for members of the family across the Central American Seaway; and it further highlights the similarities between the odontocete faunas of the southeastern Pacific and North Atlantic realm during the Miocene. Better-preserved eurhinodelphinid specimens from the odontocete-rich Chilcatay Formation will allow for a more detailed comparison with North Atlantic members of the family. RIVISTA ITALIANA DI PALEONTOLOGIA E STRATIGRAFIA , V. 127 N. 1 (2021)

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  • Authors: Lanoux, A.; Lepage, Mario; de Watteville, J.; Jatteau, Philippe; +2 Authors

    [Departement_IRSTEA]Eaux [TR1_IRSTEA]QUASARE; International audience; The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires the improvement of water quality in the EU and the assessment of the transitional waters ecological status considering the fish component of the ecosystem. In the WFD, the dissolved oxygen (DO) is considered as one of the physico-chemical quality elements that support the biology and have to be monitored. Estuaries are particularly essential to fish as refuge area, habitats for reproduction, nursery grounds and migration routes but they are impacted by multiple anthropogenic disturbances. Hypoxic threshold is largely characterized by a DO content of 2 mg L-1 whereas the median lethal concentration is about 2.45 mg L-1 for aquatic organisms. Since 2005, this parameter is monitored in the Gironde Estuary thanks to the continuous monitoring MAGEST network that has recorded several summer borderline hypoxic situations (DO close to 2 mg L-1) and a 7 days-long hypoxic event (DO < 2.45 mg L-1) in July 2006 with a minimum measured value of 1.22 mg L-1. Biological responses to hypoxia depend on the period, intensity and extent of these events. Shads, Alosa fallax and Alosa alosa, and some shrimp developmental stages, are among the most sensitive species to hypoxia in the Gironde Estuary. A behavioral study was performed on shad juvenile and allowed to establish the DO threshold that could impact their downstream migration occurring from July to early October. Water temperatures in summer 2006 are the highest recorded in the period 2005-2012 with values higher than 28°C. Almost 43% of conditions (DO thresholds at 20°C and 25°C) are critical to shad juveniles during their migration period in 2006. More than 940 hours reached critical values including 460 hours that would result in the death of individuals. Although the fish taxa appear to be more sensitive towards hypoxia, the crustacean taxa show also a strong sensitivity in the early ontogenic stage and on eggs-bearing females. Because shrimp is a major component of the estuarine food web, this taxon appears as a promising indicator of ecosystem dysfunction.

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  • Authors: Cécé, Raphaël; Krien, Yann; Arnaud, Gaël; Bernard, Didier; +3 Authors

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    Authors: Condal, Fernando; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sardà Amills, Francesc; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; +2 Authors

    The obtention of time series in the structure and biodiversity of marine populations is of great interest in spite of increasing anthropic perturbations of direct type (e.g. fishing or littering) or of more indirect nature as the climate change. However, the lack of reliable and long-lasting sampling/observational technology deeply constrains our understanding of ecosystem functioning and its response to any perturbation. For the first time, we continuously monitored the seasonal variation in individuals for different fish species within a Western Mediterranean marine protected area by means of the cabled video-observatory OBSEA (20 m depth). During 1 year (from June 2009 to July 2010), frames for fish visual counting were acquired by a digital still camera portraying two different reef and water locations, at each daylight hour within the two central weeks of each month. In images we reported the total of counted fishes, the total of fishes per species, the number of species, the Shannon Diversity and Mean Trophic Level. A comprehensive faunistic list including not only fishes but also diving seabirds was obtained. Significantly higher number of species and their abundances were observed in images including the artificial reef location versus those of the water column. A seasonal variability was observed in Diplodus vulgaris, Chromis chromis, Diplodus sargus, Diplodus annularis, Dentex dentex, Spondyliosoma cantharus, Symphodus melanocercus, having this phenomenon an effect on monthly Shannon Diversity Index estimates. The seasonal variation of these species was not linked to their Trophic Level. Moreover, a weak intra-day (i.e. morning versus afternoon) variation in fish counts was also reported, being not significant. Present results indicate that cabled video-observatories are a reliable and powerful method to monitor seasonal changes in species composition and biodiversity, potentially providing important data for the modelling of marine ecosystem functioning. This research was funded by ESONET (European Seas Observatory NETwork; Framework Program-FP7 Infrastructures-2005-Global-4, ESONET 036851-2), EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation; Framework Program-FP7 Infrastructures2007-1, Proposal 211816), RITFIM (CTM2010-16274), and ACI2009-0983 (Operatividad laboratorio Submarino OBSEA). Researchers from the CSIC and UPC are members of the Associated Unit Tecnoterra. J. Aguzzi is a Postdoctoral Fellow of the Ramón y Cajal Program (MICINN). Peer Reviewed

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  • Authors: GABRIELE, MARZIA; BOSCHIAN, GIOVANNI;

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    Authors: Poher, Yoann; Ponel, Philippe; Médail, Frédéric; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; +1 Authors

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    Authors: Cheng, Zhi;

    Dans cette thèse, nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse de données spatio-temporelles. Plusieurs algorithmes de fouille de données ont été développés pour extraire des modèles locaux (appelés aussi "motifs") tels que les motifs séquentiels ou les sous-graphes dynamiques. Cependant, ces approches souffrent de plusieurs limitations lorsqu 'on traite des phénomènes spatio-temporels complexes. Ces domaines de motifs ne prennent pas en compte toutes les interactions spatio-temporelles possibles ou ne considèrent que des informations limitées sur les objets étudiés. Par exemple, les motifs séquentiels se concentrent sur les évolutions temporelles sans tenir compte des évolutions spatiales. En outre, la plus part des algorithmes d'extraction de sous-graphes étudient des graphes dynamiques labélisés. Cependant, ils ne considèrent qu'un seul attribut par nœud et ignorent les autres caractéristiques des objets étudiés. Dans ce manuscrit, nous proposons d'étudier un graphe dynamique attribué pour fournir une représentation plus riche des phénomènes spatio-temporels. L'extraction de motifs dans des graphes dynamiques attribués est une tâche particulièrement complexe car la structure du graphe, les nœuds et les attributs associés à chaque nœud peuvent changer dans le temps. Pour cela, nous avons défini un nouveau domaine de motifs appelé motifs récurrents. Ces motifs, qui sont des séquences de sous-graphes connexes, représentent des évolutions récurrentes des sous-ensembles d'attributs associés à des sous-ensembles de nœuds. Pour extraire ces motifs, nous avons développé un nouvel algorithme, appelé RPMiner, utilisant une stratégie originale basée sur des intersections successives de composantes connexes apparaissant dans la séquence. Nous avons utilisé plusieurs contraintes pour réduire l 'espace de recherche et rendre le calcul possible. Une étude expérimentale sur des jeux de données synthétiques et réels (réseau de co-auteurs DBLP et données de trafic aérien US Flight) montre la généricité de notre approche, l 'intérêt des motifs extraits et l'efficacité de notre algorithme. Nous avons effectué également une évaluation poussée de notre approche sur les données du projet INDESO (suivi de bassins aquacoles en Indonésie par imagerie satellitaire). Pour cela, un processus d' extraction de connaissances (KDD) complet a été développé : du prétraitement des données à la visualisation et à l 'interprétation des résultats. Il vise à mieux comprendre les pratiques des fermiers pour un développement durable de ces ressources côtières en Indonésie. Ce processus s'appuie tout d'abord sur une méthode automatique et robuste pour extraire les bassins d'aquacoles à partir d'images satellitaires à faible contraste. Ensuite, il utilise des méthodes d'extraction de motifs fréquents afin de mettre en avant certaines pratiques des fermiers. Pour cela, nous avons appliqué dans un premier temps un algorithme d'extraction de motifs séquentiels pour analyser l'évolution des bassins dans le temps et comprendre les pratiques des fermiers. En parallèle nous avons aussi appliqué notre algorithme RPMiner, qui prend en compte à la fois les dimensions spatiales et temporelles. Les motifs extraits ont été interprétés par des experts en aquaculture. Les résultats obtenus ont permis de confirmer certaines pratiques et d'en mettre en avant d'autres. In this thesis, we are interested in analyzing spatio-temporal data. Numerous algorithms have been developed to extract local models (also called "patterns") such as sequential patterns or dynamic subgraphs. However, these approaches suffer from severa!limitations when dealing with complex spatio-temporal phenomena. These pattern demains do not consider all possible spatio-temporal interactions or only consider limited information about studied objects. For example, sequential pattern mining methods focus on temporal evolutions without considering spatial ones. Besicles, most of graph mining algorithms study labeled graphs. They only consider one attribute per vertex instead of all object's characteristics. In our work, we propose to study dynamic attributed graph, because they provide a richer representation of spatio-temporal phenomena. Extraction of patterns in dynamic attributed graph is a particularly complex task because graph structure, vertices and attributes associated with each vertex can change over time. For this purpose, we define a new pattern domain called recurrent patterns. These patterns, which are sequences of connected ubgraph, œpreent recurrent evolutions of subsets of attributes associated to vertices. To extract these patterns, we develop a new algorithm, RPMiner, using an original strategy based on successive intersections of connected components. We use severa! constraints to reduce the search space and make the computation feasible. Experimental study on both syndetic and two real-world datasets (DBLP dataset and Domestic US Flight dataset) show the genericity of our approach, the interest of extracted patterns and the efficiency of our algorithm. We also do an in-depth experimental evaluation of our approach on the INDESO project data (aquaculture pond monitoring in lndonesia by satellite images). A complete KDD process has been developed: from pre-processing of data to visualization and interpretation of results. It aims to better understand farming practices for sustainable development of these coastal resources in Indonesia.This process is firstly based on an automatic and robust method to extract aquaculture ponds from low contrast satellite images. Next, this process extracts frequent patterns to highlight sorne farming practices. For this, we have firstly applied a sequential pattern mining to analyze temporal evolutions of aquaculture ponds and to understand farming practices. In parallel, we also apply our algorithm, RPMiner, which considers both spatial and temporal aspects. Extracted patterns were interpreted by aquaculture experts. Results confirm severa!practices and highlight ethers.

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    Authors: LE GUYADER, Damien; RAY, Cyril; BROSSET, David;

    International audience; Estimates of the spatial distribution and intensity of fishing activity are necessary to provide relevant information for natural resources management, impact assessment and for maritime spatial planning. However, considering the need for a multi-scale approach, the access to such high-resolution information still remains a challenge.This research focuses on semi-automatic mapping of dredges gears fishing grounds with fishing intensity estimates from AIS data with a high spatial resolution. An application is conducted in bay of Brest in partnership with the local fishermen committee (Comité Départemental des Pêches Maritime et des Elevages Marin du Finistère).

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    Authors: Bennis, Anne-Claire; Dumas, Franck; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Blanke, Bruno;

    {"references": ["F. P. Shepard, \"Undertow, rip tide or rip current,\" Science,\nvol. 84, pp. 181\u2013182, 1936.", "J. H. MacMahan, E. B. Thornton, and A. J. Reniers, \"Rip\ncurrent review,\" Coastal Eng., vol. 53, pp. 191\u2013208, 2006.", "L. Lasbeur and B. Thelot, \"Epidemiological surveillance of\ndrowning - the noyades 2012 survey. 1 june-30 september\n2012,\" Saint Maurice: Institut de veille vanitaire, Tech. Rep.,\n2013.", "F. P. Shepard, K. O. Emery, and E. C. L. Fond, \"Rip currents: A\nprocess of geological importance,\" Journal of Geology, vol. 49,\npp. 337\u2013369, 1941.", "P. H. Leblond and C. L. Tang, \"On energy coupling between\nwaves and rip currents,\" J. Geophys. Res., vol. 79, pp. 811\u2013816,\n1974.", "A. Falques, A. Montoto, and D. Vila, \"A note on hydrodynamic\ninstabilities and horizontal circulation in the surf zone,\" J.\nGeophys. Res., vol. 104, no. C9, pp. 20 605\u201320 615, 1999.", "J. Yu, \"On the instability leading to rip currents due to\nwave-current interaction,\" J. Fluid Mech., vol. 549, pp.\n403\u2013428, 2006.", "J. W. Long and H. T. Ozkan-Haller, \"Offshore controls on\nnearshore rip currents,\" J. Geophys. Res., vol. 110, p. C12007,\n2005.", "K. A. Haas, I. A. Svendsen, and M. C. Haller, \"Numerical\nmodeling of nearshore circulations on a barred beach with rip\nchannels, paper presented at the 26th conference on coastal\nengineering,\" Am. Soc. of Civ. Eng., 1998.\n[10] J. Yu and D. N. Slinn, \"Effects of wave-current interaction on\nrip currents,\" J. Geophys. Res., vol. 108, no. C3, p. 3088, 2003.\n[11] B. Weir, Y. Uchiyama, E. M. Lane, J. M. Restrepo, and J. C.\nMcWilliams, \"A vortex force analysis of the interaction of rip\ncurrents and surface gravity waves,\" J. Geophys. Res., vol. 116,\np. C05001, 2011.\n[12] F. Ardhuin, N. Rascle, and K. A. Belibassakis, \"Explicit\nwave-averaged primitive equations using a generalized\nLagrangian mean,\" Ocean Modelling, vol. 20, pp. 35\u201360, 2008.\n[13] A.-C. Bennis, F. Ardhuin, and F. Dumas, \"On the coupling\nof wave and three-dimensional circulation models: Choice of\ntheoretical framework, practical implementation and adiabatic\ntests,\" Ocean Modelling, vol. 40, pp. 260\u2013272, 2011.\n[14] A.-C. Bennis, F. Dumas, F. Ardhuin, and B. Blanke, \"Mixing\nparameterization: impacts on rip currents and wave set-up,\"\nOcean Engineering, vol. 42, pp. 213\u2013227, 2014.\n[15] P. Lazure and F. Dumas, \"An external-internal mode coupling\nfor a 3d hydrodynamical model for applications at regional scale\n(MARS),\" Adv. Water Resources, vol. 31, pp. 233\u2013250, 2008.\n[16] H. L. Tolman, \"User manual and system\ndocumentation of WAVEWATCH-IIITM version 3.14,\"\nNOAA/NWS/NCEP/MMAB, Tech. Rep. 276, 2009.\n[17] S. Buis, A. Piacentini, and D. D\u00b4eclat, \"PALM: A computational\nframework for assembling high performance computing\napplications,\" Concurrency Computat.: Pract. Exper., vol. 18,\nno. 2, pp. 247\u2013262, 2008.\n[18] F. Ardhuin, E. Rogers, A. Babanin, J.-F. Filipot, R. Magne,\nA. Roland, A. van der Westhuysen, P. Queffeulou, J.-M.\nLefevre, L. Aouf, and F. Collard, \"Semi-empirical dissipation\nsource functions for wind-wave models: part i, definition,\ncalibration and validation,\" J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 40, pp.\n1917\u20131941, 2010.\n[19] A. Bourchtein and L. Bourchtein, \"Modified time splitting\nscheme for shallow water equations,\" Mathematics and\nComputers in Simulation, vol. 73, pp. 52\u201364, 2006.\n[20] R. L. Soulsby, \"Bed shear stresses due to combined waves\nand currents. In: Stive, M., Freds\u00f8e, J., Hamm, L., Soulsby,\nR., Teisson, C., Winterwerp, J. (Eds),\" Advances in Coastal\nMorphodynamics, Delft Hydraulics, Delft, The Netherlands, pp.\n420\u2013423, 1995.\n[21] H. Burchard, \"Simulating the wave-enhanced layer under\nbreaking surface waves with two-equation turbulence models,\"\nJ. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 31, pp. 3133\u20133145, 2001.\n[22] J. C. McWilliams, J. M. Restrepo, and E. M. Lane, \"An\nasymptotic theory for the interaction of waves and currents in\ncoastal waters,\" J. Fluid Mech., vol. 511, pp. 135\u2013178, 2004.\n[23] N. Kumar, G. Voulgaris, J. C. Warner, and M. Olabarrieta,\n\"Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled\nocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST)\nmodeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications,\"\nOcean Modelling, vol. 47, pp. 65\u201395, 2012.\n[24] S. Moghimi, K. Klingbeil, U. Grawe, and H. Burchard, \"A direct\ncomparison of the depth-dependent radiation stress method and\na vortex force formulation within a three-dimensional ocean\nmodel,\" Ocean Modelling, pp. 1\u201338, 2012.\n[25] Y. Uchiyama, J. C. McWilliams, and A. F. Shchepetkin,\n\"Wave-current interaction in oceanic circulation model with a\nvortex-force formalism Application to the surf zone,\" Ocean\nModelling, vol. 34, pp. 16\u201335, 2010.\n[26] D. J. R. Walstra, J. Roelvink, and J. Groeneweg, \"Calculation of\nwave-driven currents in a 3D mean flow model,\" in Proceedings\nof the 27th international conference on coastal engineering,\nSydney, vol. 2. ASCE, 2000, pp. 1050\u20131063.\n[27] J. A. Battjes, \"Modelling of turbulence in surf zone,\" in\nSymposium on Modelling Techniques, San Francisco. ASCE,\n1975, pp. 1050\u20131061.\n[28] J. Smagorinsky, \"General circulations experiments with the\nprimitive equations i. the basic experiment,\" Monthly Weather\nReview, vol. 8, pp. 99\u2013165, 1963."]} The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

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