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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Claire Parent; Michèle Crèvecoeur; Nicolas Capelli; James F. Dat;

    ABSTRACTSoil flooding is an environmental constraint that is increasingly important for forest ecosystems, affecting tree growth and regeneration. As a result, selection pressure will alter forest diversity and distribution by favouring tree species tolerant of soil oxygen deprivation. Sessile and pedunculate oaks are the most abundant oak species and they exhibit a strong differential tolerance to waterlogging. In order to gain some understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance of both species to hypoxia, we undertook the characterization of the physiological, morphological, cellular and molecular responses of both species to flooding stress. Our results indicate that pedunculate oak, the more tolerant species, succeeded in maintaining its growth, water status and photosynthetic activity at a higher level than sessile oak. Furthermore, pedunculate oak developed aerenchyma in its root cortex as well as adventitious roots. The later exhibited a strong accumulation of class1 non‐symbiotic haemoglobin localized by in situ hybridization in the protoderm and in some cortical cells. In conclusion, the higher tolerance of pedunculate oak to flooding was associated with an enhanced capacity to maintain photosynthesis and water homeostasis, coupled with the development of adaptive features (aerenchyma, adventitious roots) and with a higher expression of non‐symbiotic haemoglobin in the roots.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Plant Cell & Environ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Plant Cell & Environment
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Bureau Du Colombier, Sarah; Jacobs, Louis; Gesset, Charline; Elie, Pierre; +1 Authors

    [Departement_IRSTEA]Eaux [TR1_IRSTEA]QUASARE; International audience; In the context of the severe decrease in temperate eel abundance, understanding and control of eel maturation has strong interest for scientific and commercial purposes. Possible use of ultrasonography for improvement of sex determination and maturation monitoring in silver eel was investigated. Gonads of 96 Anguilla anguilla silver eels were observed using portable equipment associated to a 6-15MHz probe, and sex determination was tried before artificial induction of maturation. To estimate gonad mass and monitor individual gonadosomatic index (GSI) in females, cross-sectional images were captured at different times of maturation and gonad length was measured at scanning. Two methods were tried for ovary mass estimation using ultrasonography: one based on a linear model and another on calculating ovary volume from a representation of gonad shape. Ultrasonography resulted in 100% success in sex determination. Ovary mass estimated by ultrasonography was strongly correlated to true ovary mass (R2=0.97). The use of a linear model for gonad mass and then GSI estimation seemed more appropriate than the use of a representation of gonad shape. Evolution of GSI estimates during maturation supports possible detection of early inter-individual differences in maturation using ultrasonography in female silver eels. This non-invasive tool can then obviously be exploited to improve sex determination in silver eels caught in the wild and to monitor maturation at the individual level. Ultrasonography thus has great potential for use in eel both for conservation and aquaculture. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of ultrasonography on eels or any anguillid species.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Fisheries Researcharrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Fisheries Research
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Fisheries Researcharrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Fisheries Research
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Barral, M.T.; Arias, Maria Cecilia; GUERIF, Jérôme;

    Knowledge of the soil components controlling aggregate formation and stability is fundamental to the conservation of soil structure. In this work, the effects of Fe and organic matter (OM) on the porosity and structural stability of aggregates <4 mm of two cropped soils from Galicia (NW Spain) were determined. Porosity was estimated directly, by mercury intrusion porosimetry, and indirectly, from moisture characteristic and shrinkage curves. The three porosities obtained were similar and indicated that Soil 1, with the highest Fe and OM contents, had lower total porosity and a wider pore-size distribution than Soil 2. As regards structural stability, Henin and Monnier's test, simulated rainfall and dispersion experiments, and determination of textural tensile strength all indicated Soil 1 to be the more stable soil. Oxidation of OM and selective extraction of Fe, which were most concentrated in the clay and silt fractions, indicated both these components to be important soil aggregants. It is suggested that the higher content of Soil 1 in Fe and OM is responsible for its greater stability.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Soil and Tillage Res...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Soil and Tillage Research
    Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Soil and Tillage Res...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Soil and Tillage Research
      Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Neal, C.; Whitehead, P. G.; Flynn, N.;

    International audience; This contribution brings to a close a special issue of Hydrology and Earth System Sciences concerning the assessment of nitrogen dynamics in catchments across Europe within a semi-distributed Integrated Nitrogen model for multiple source assessment in Catchments (INCA). The wide range of issues involved in relation to hydrology and within-catchment processes, scale (from small catchments to major river basins), climate (from sub-arctic to Mediterranean regimes) and pollution (atmospheric, agricultural and urban sources) is outlined. Consideration is then given to how well the model has performed and future research requirements are outlined. Keywords: nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, organic nitrogen, catchments, streams, rivers, river basins

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2002
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article
    License: CC BY ND SA
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires en Sciences...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 2002
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article
      License: CC BY ND SA
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Ismail, H.; Lemriss, S.; Ben Aoun, Z.; Mhadhebi, L.; +4 Authors

    Abstract Crude extracts and semi-purified fractions (F5, F6) from the Mediterranean sea cucumber, Holothuria polii , collected from the bay of Tabarka (Tunisia coast) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast. The activity was determined in vitro, using the well diffusion test in the casitone agar medium. Both the aqueous and the methanolic extracts were found to produce, in a concentration-related manner (600–1500 μg/well) a significant antifungal activity. The semi-purified fractions (F5, F6) of both extracts exhibited also a significant antifungal activity in a concentration-related manner (150–300 μg/well). The strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were more susceptible to these extracts and derived fractions, while those of Trichophyton rubrum were found to be less susceptible. No activity was observed against strains of Candida albicans . These findings suggest that the polar active fractions (F5, F6) obtained from aqueous and methanolic extracts could contain a new antifungal compound(s). The purification and the determination of chemical structure of compound(s) of these active fractions are under investigation.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal de Mycologie...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal de Mycologie...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal de Mycologie Médicale
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2008
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Barthod, Sandrine; Epron, Daniel;

    Variations du coût de construction associées au renouvellement de la surface foliaire chez de jeunes plants de deux espèces sympatriques de forêt tempérée (Acer platanoides L. et Fraxinus excelsior L.) le long d'un gradient de lumière. Le renouvellement des feuilles et des structures nécessaires à leur maintien (l'ensemble correspondant à la tige feuillée) représente chaque année un coût pour les plants. La contribution de la composition biochimique (coût de construction des tissus, CC) et des caractéristiques morphologiques (répartition de la biomasse, masse des feuilles par unité de surface, LMA) aux changements du coût associé à l'étalement des feuilles (coût de construction de la tige feuillée, par unité de surface foliaire, CCA) a été étudiée chez de jeunes plants de Acer platanoides L. et Fraxinus excelsior L. croissant dans un gradient naturel de lumière sous un couvert forestier. Une diminution de LMA avec l'ombrage et des modifications de répartition de biomasse au profit des feuilles et des pétioles et au détriment de la tige expliquent la forte diminution de la masse de la tige feuillée de l'année par unité de surface foliaire (SMA), et l'essentiel de la plasticité observée pour CCA de la tige feuillée chez les deux espèces. En plus, une diminution du coût de construction des feuilles chez A. platanoides contribue également à la diminution de CCA de la tige feuillée avec l'ombrage chez cette espèce. Le coût de construction des feuilles est positivement corrélé à LMA chez F. excelsior, positivement corrélé à LMA et à l'absorbance de l'épiderme dans l'UV (AUV) chez A. platanoides. CC des feuilles est négativement corrélé au contenu en cendre chez les deux espèces. La forte corrélation négative entre AUV et le contenu en azote pourrait tamponner les variations de CC des feuilles chez F. excelsior. The yearly renewal of leaves and their holding organs (the leafy shoot) represent an energetic cost for saplings. The contribution of both biochemical (tissue construction cost, CC) and morphological traits (biomass partitioning and leaf mass per unit area, LMA) to the cost associated with leaf area renewal (construction cost of the leafy shoot per unit leaf area, shoot CCA) was studied in saplings of Acer platanoides L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. growing in a natural light gradient below forest canopy. Decrease in LMA with shade and change in biomass partitioning from stems towards leaves and petioles accounted for the strong decrease in mass per unit area of the leafy shoot (SMA) with shade and for most of the plasticity of shoot CCA in both species. In addition, a decrease in leaf CC in A. platanoides also contributed to the overall decrease of shoot CCA with shade in this species. Leaf CC was positively correlated with LMA in F. excelsior, positively correlated with both LMA and epidermal absorbance of UV (AUV) in A. platanoides. Leaf CC was negatively correlated with ash content in both species. The strong negative correlation between AUV and nitrogen content might have damped variations in leaf CC in F. excelsior.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Annals of Forest Sci...arrow_drop_down
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    Annals of Forest Science
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2005
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 2005
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ProdInra
    Article . 2005
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Annals of Forest Sci...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Annals of Forest Science
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Lecoeur, J.; Wery, J.; Turc, Olivier; Tardieu, Francois;

    We have followed the expansion of individual pea leaves from initiation to maximum area, over two markedly different periods. During the first one (2/3 of total leaf development time), cell production occurred while cell and leaf expansions were slow. Rapid expansion (95% of total) occurred for a second period lasting 1/3 of total development time, whereas cell division was virtually completed. Water deficits of 15 d were applied during either slow or rapid expansion, and characterized by measurements of soil water potential, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and xylem [ABA]. Plants which experienced water deficit during the slow expansion period had markedly reduced expansion during the second period (i.e. 1 or 2 weeks after cessation of deficit), while all variables characterizing water status were returned to the level of the control. This 'after effect' was accounted for by a reduced cell number per leaf, while individual cell area was not affected. In contrast, water deficit occurring during rapid leaf expansion immediately reduced leaf expansion via cell area, without affecting cell number per leaf. These experiments indicate a role, in the response to water deficits, for events occurring very early in the development of pea leaves, while leaf expansion is too slow to be measured with macroscopic methods. This role would be accounted for by cell production during the first 2/3 of leaf development while cell expansion would account for changes in the area of leaves experiencing a later stress. These results suggest that long-term temporal analysis may be essential in the study of dicot leaf expansion compared to monocot leaves where temporal analysis can be inferred from spatial analysis.

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    Authors: Escobar Gutierrez, Abraham, A.; Combe, Laurette;

    International audience; The objective of this work was to describe the dynamics of senescence of field-grown maize from silking to harvest, at both leaf and plant level. At the leaf level, the dynamics of symptoms of senescence were considered on each leaf taken individually and described according to zones from the tip to the base of the leaf lamina. At the whole plant level, foliar ranks were each considered as an entity to describe the time course of senescence. To this end, we use a database built-up from field trials conducted during three consecutive years (1994-1996) and thus undergoing variable meteorological and soil water conditions. Leaf chlorophyll content was estimated using two different methods based on the optical properties of the leaves. In Trial I, chlorophyll estimates were based on leaf optical density measured with a MacBeth TR-924 densitometer. In Trial II and Trial III, chlorophyll estimations were based on measurement using a hand-held Minolta SPAD-502 device. In Trial II and Trial III, chlorophyll fluorescence analyses under filed conditions were performed. These analyses focused on the photosystem II (PSI!) maximum efficiency (Fv'/Fm') parameter in the light-adapted state. Measurements were done with a Waltz PAM-2000 portable fluorometer. We report detailed descriptions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of these indicators of senescence. We found that, after silking, a strong relationship exists between available water and leaf chlorophyll content. Further, the maximum efficiency of PSII decreased faster in maize plants undergoing low available soil water than in irrigated plants. The rank of a leaf is determinant of the time for the beginning of the decline in both chlorophyll content and maximum efficiency of PSII. At plant and leaf level, the onset of senescence was marked by a decrease in chlorophyll content that was not concomitant with a dramatic decrease in the maximum efficiency of PSII. Our analyses suggest that a non-linear functional relationship could exist between these two parameters during monocarpic senescence. In the mean time, the results presented in this paper could be used to refine the senescence related modules in plant and crop models.

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    Field Crops Research
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Field Crops Research
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    Authors: Chevaldonne, Pierre; Sket, Boris; Marschal, Christian; Lejeusne, Christophe; +1 Authors

    Dark littoral submarine caves can act as enclaves of the deep aphotic zone in shallow coastal areas, and their survey has revealed the existence of a very particular fauna of specialized and poorly known organisms among which crustaceans are particularly well represented. In these particular habitats, the use of conventional sampling techniques, such as hand nets, is often not recommended since they disturb bottom sediments causing hazardous situations to scientific divers. The use of baited traps, while technically possible, is not. always practical is such remote habitats. The present work describes a simple and inexpensive manual device that can be operated by divers ill submarine caves and other cryptic habitats to recurrently catch small motile organisms such as mysid crustaceans, caridean shrimps, or even gobiid fishes. This small suction bottle derived and improved from the original "Sket bottle" design considerably reduces the risks of disturbing the cave's bottom sediment and can be easily operated using a single hand. The described sampling device can also be easily used outside caves, in a variety of particular habitats, e.g., rubble filled bottoms, branching coral reefs, cracks, and small holes on rocky surfaces, in which small motile organisms usually escape from traditional sampling gears, e.g., fishnets and traps, or simply go unnoticed by researchers during sampling. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    Journal of Crustacean Biology
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Article . 2007
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    Authors: Mathieu Santonja; Adriane Aupic-Samain; Estelle Forey; Matthieu Chauvat;

    Collembola is an abundant group of soil organisms playing a major role on litter decomposition process and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Habitat structure strongly influences Collembola assemblages as plant litter physical characteristics and quantity provide structural niches and determine the outcome of their interactions with predators. Collembola are also extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as soil temperature that control their demographic parameters and activity. In this context, increasing temperature with the ongoing climate change can have strong impact on Collembola assemblages and their responses to predation either directly by altering their behaviour or indirectly by altering their habitat structure. We therefore examined how the increase of temperature combined to the decrease of specific leaf area (SLA, a major functional plant trait) of the European common oak (Quercus robur L.) and the presence of a centipede predator (Chilopoda Lithobiidae) will affect the abundance of Folsomia candida (Collembola Isotomidae) in a 5-week microcosm experiment. Increasing temperature, decreasing SLA and presence of centipede altered F. candida abundance. We observed a significant temperature × predation interaction suggesting differential effects of increasing temperature on F. candida abundance with and without predator. We also observed a significant SLA × predation interaction highlighting that lower SLA decreases F. candida abundance only in predator presence. Finally, our findings evidenced that increasing temperature and decreasing SLA amplify the negative effect of centipede predation on F. candida abundance, suggesting that both direct and indirect effects of climate change would conjointly strengthen the top-down control of predators on preys. International audience

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    European Journal of Soil Biology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2018
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    Authors: Claire Parent; Michèle Crèvecoeur; Nicolas Capelli; James F. Dat;

    ABSTRACTSoil flooding is an environmental constraint that is increasingly important for forest ecosystems, affecting tree growth and regeneration. As a result, selection pressure will alter forest diversity and distribution by favouring tree species tolerant of soil oxygen deprivation. Sessile and pedunculate oaks are the most abundant oak species and they exhibit a strong differential tolerance to waterlogging. In order to gain some understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance of both species to hypoxia, we undertook the characterization of the physiological, morphological, cellular and molecular responses of both species to flooding stress. Our results indicate that pedunculate oak, the more tolerant species, succeeded in maintaining its growth, water status and photosynthetic activity at a higher level than sessile oak. Furthermore, pedunculate oak developed aerenchyma in its root cortex as well as adventitious roots. The later exhibited a strong accumulation of class1 non‐symbiotic haemoglobin localized by in situ hybridization in the protoderm and in some cortical cells. In conclusion, the higher tolerance of pedunculate oak to flooding was associated with an enhanced capacity to maintain photosynthesis and water homeostasis, coupled with the development of adaptive features (aerenchyma, adventitious roots) and with a higher expression of non‐symbiotic haemoglobin in the roots.

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    Plant Cell & Environment
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Bureau Du Colombier, Sarah; Jacobs, Louis; Gesset, Charline; Elie, Pierre; +1 Authors

    [Departement_IRSTEA]Eaux [TR1_IRSTEA]QUASARE; International audience; In the context of the severe decrease in temperate eel abundance, understanding and control of eel maturation has strong interest for scientific and commercial purposes. Possible use of ultrasonography for improvement of sex determination and maturation monitoring in silver eel was investigated. Gonads of 96 Anguilla anguilla silver eels were observed using portable equipment associated to a 6-15MHz probe, and sex determination was tried before artificial induction of maturation. To estimate gonad mass and monitor individual gonadosomatic index (GSI) in females, cross-sectional images were captured at different times of maturation and gonad length was measured at scanning. Two methods were tried for ovary mass estimation using ultrasonography: one based on a linear model and another on calculating ovary volume from a representation of gonad shape. Ultrasonography resulted in 100% success in sex determination. Ovary mass estimated by ultrasonography was strongly correlated to true ovary mass (R2=0.97). The use of a linear model for gonad mass and then GSI estimation seemed more appropriate than the use of a representation of gonad shape. Evolution of GSI estimates during maturation supports possible detection of early inter-individual differences in maturation using ultrasonography in female silver eels. This non-invasive tool can then obviously be exploited to improve sex determination in silver eels caught in the wild and to monitor maturation at the individual level. Ultrasonography thus has great potential for use in eel both for conservation and aquaculture. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of ultrasonography on eels or any anguillid species.

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    Fisheries Research
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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