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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hirono, T.; Barbero, M.; Breugnon, P.; Godiot, S.; +11 Authors

    International audience; Depleted CMOS active sensors (DMAPS) are being developed for high-energy particle physics experiments in high radiation environments, such as in the ATLAS High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). Since charge collection by drift is mandatory for harsh radiation environment, the application of high bias voltage to high resistive sensor material is needed. In this work, a prototype of a DMAPS was fabricated in a 150nm CMOS process on a substrate with a resistivity of >2 k{\Omega}cm that was thinned to 100 {\mu}m. Full depletion occurs around 20V, which is far below the breakdown voltage of 110 V. A readout chip has been attached for fast triggered readout. Presented prototype also uses a concept of sub-pixel en/decoding three pixels of the prototype chip are readout by one pixel of the readout chip. Since radiation tolerance is one of the largest concerns in DMAPS, the CCPD_LF chip has been irradiated with X-rays and neutrons up to a total ionization dose of 50 Mrad and a fluence of 10E15neq/cm2, respectively.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.0315...
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2016
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    https://doi.org/10.1109/nssmic...
    Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Conference object . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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      http://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.0315...
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      Article . 2016
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/nssmic...
      Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Chauvin, C.; Petit, J.; Héreil, P.L.; Boustié, Michel;

    In the field of dynamic high-pressure physics of condensed materials, the accurate knowl- edge of the thermodynamic state of a material is fundamental to understand its dynamic behaviour under stress. The equation of state of materials is verified in terms of pressure, density and internal energy thanks to the measurements of pressure and velocity under shock wave compression with a satisfying precision. The theoretical temperature evaluated from EOS remains discussed. So; its ac- curate measurement is of great interest, in particular at low temperature. However, in this range, measurements appear more difficult to perform. Because of this, a high-speed infrared three-wave- length pyrometer has been modified at CEG to perform measurements at very low temperature (<500 K). Besides, an emissive layer has been designed to increase the emissivity of the shocked surface. To reduce the uncertainty of the temperature measurement, it appears necessary to limit its emissivity to a 0.9-1 range. 1. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The technique to approach as close as possible the shock temperature is to record the spectral radiance emitted from the surface of the target through a window with a pyrometer. It is well- known technique above 900 K (1,2), but this technique is difficult to adapt for low radiance temperature measurements (<500 K) while guarantying a good precision. The aim of this work is to adapt a pyrometer to perform low radiance temperature measurements on plate impact experiments and to reduce the interface temperature measurement uncertainties by using an emissive layer at the interface.

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  • Authors: Lamy, T.; Curdy, J.C.; Sole, P.; Sortais, P.; +3 Authors

    The development of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at LPSC Grenoble (previously ISN) covers a wide range of applications. Micro-PHOENIX is a compact source whose magnetic confinement is fully generated by permanent magnets. The extraction geometry has been specially designed to manage high currents with a double electrode extraction system to improve the beam characteristics at high voltage. The ECRIS can accept a microwave power frequency from 10 to 18 GHz. It has been installed as a universal injector on the new charge breeder test bench in order to perform the widest range of experiments including mono- or multicharged ion injections. To characterize the analyzed extracted beam, a new emittance meter based on electrostatic deflection plates has been set up and permits one to obtain online high resolution measurements. The first objective of the experiments was to fulfill the future SPIRAL II requirements. After a technical description of the Micro-PHOENIX ECRIS and its beam analysis system, the first experimental results obtained with a single puller electrode will be presented. Thus, a D+ intensity of 5 mA at 39 kV is easily delivered within a normalized rms emittance of 0.092 π mm mrad, which is well below the 0.2 π mm mrad limit assuring a 100% RFQ transport efficiency as computed for the LINAG project. A more extensive study of emittance versus plasma parameters is in progress.

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  • Authors: Malbet, Fabien; Driebe, Thomas M.; Foy, Renaud; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; +7 Authors

    AMBER had first light in March 2004. The guaranteed time observations of the AMBER consortium (LAOG, MPIfR, OAA, OCA, UNSA) consists of 87 proposals ranging from cosmology, extragalactic studies, star formation, planetary system, late stages of stellar evolution to physical properties of stars. Some examples, AGN, evolved stars and hot stars are discussed in this paper.

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  • Authors: Missaoui Badreddine, Rim; Warkozek, Ghaith; Bacha, Seddik; Ploix, Stéphane;

    Building Energy Management Systems (BEMS) have been developed in order to improve dwelling energy efficiency, which is seen as a compromise between energy cost and overall comfort. A BEMS optimize the control of energy supply and demand according to forecasting data. This paper proposes new BEMS strategies to support Demand Side Management and validate them using a real time platform: A Power-Hardware-In the-Loop (PHIL) test bench. Physical devices are introduced into the simulated system to check whether they can support the control strategies.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fuller, M.F.; Cadenhead, A.; Mollison, G.; Sève, Bernard;

    1. Eight pigs with a mean weight of 48 kg were given, at a constant daily rate, diets of low (0.15) or high (0.30) protein content, very deficient in lysine, with or without a supplement of L-lysine (3.7 g/kg).2. Measurements of nitrogen and energy metabolism were made in four successive 14 d periods in a Latin-square design.3. The rate of protein accretion was substantially increased by increases in both protein and lysine supply, but the rate of heat production was not significantly changed.4. The rate of fat deposition varied inversely with the rate of protein accretion, being reduced by both protein and lysine supplements.5. The relation between heat production and protein accretion (allowing for a constant energy cost of fat deposition) suggested that heat production increased with additional protein accretion less when protein quality was improved than when more protein was given.

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    British Journal Of Nutrition
    Article . 1987 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
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      British Journal Of Nutrition
      Article . 1987 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vidal-Madjar, A.; Laurent, C.; Bruston, P.; Audouze, J.;

    A model, based on different observations of the local interstellar medium, indicates the presence of a very close interstellar cloud in front of the Scorpius-Ophiuchus association (almost in the direction of the galactic center) approaching the solar system from a distance of about 0.03 pc at a velocity of about 15--20 km s/sup -1/. These observations are as follows:1. The strong gradient of the hydrogen density in the interstellar medium deduced from current observations of this gas inside the solar system (n/sub H/approx.0.1 cm/sup -3/) and in front of many nearby stars in the anticenter direction (n/sub H/approx.0.01 cm/sup -3/).2. The anisotropy of the UV flux (around 950 A) from the brightest and closest O and B stars.3. The important variation of the deuterium to hydrogen ratio, which ranges from 2 x 10/sup -6/ in the ..cap alpha.. Cen A direction to 4 x 10/sup -5/ in the Aga Aur direction.A mechanism based on a selective radiation pressure effect that acts on deuterium atoms and not on hydrogen atoms explains satisfactorily the large spread in the deuterium abundance in the local interstellar medium. The operation of this mechanism requires that the geometrical configuration remain stable for approximately 10/sup 7/ years.more » This requirement implies the existence of a nearby interstellar cloud.Possible candidates do exist in the proper sky direction. One candidate, extensively discussed, presents a persistent interstellar absorption pattern over an angle of 40/sup 0/ related to a high column density, although covering only a few degrees in the sky, would lead to the same consequence. The presence of such condidates is not all contradicted by the interstellar reddening and absorption line observations.Other implications of the presence of such a close cloud are presented.« less

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    The Astrophysical Journal
    Article . 1978 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 1978
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      The Astrophysical Journal
      Article . 1978 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Francisco Sousa Alves, Luciano; Lefranc, Pierre; Jeannin, Pierre-Olivier; Sarrazin, Benoit;

    Silicon (Si) power devices have dominated the world of Power Electronics in the last years, and they have proven to be efficient in a wide range of applications. But high power, high frequency and high temperature applications require more than Si can deliver. Wide Band-Gap (WBG) materials such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) were intensively researched and developed for power applications due to the substantial advantages their inherent material properties could realize at device level. The SiC-MOSFET has unique capabilities that make it a superior switch when compared to its silicon counterparts. By nature of its material advantages, SiC MOSFETs provide lower switching loss, lower ON-resistance across its operating temperature range, and superior thermal properties. However the characteristics of SiC devices require consideration of the gate-driver circuit to optimize the switching performance. SiC-MOSFETs, due to their ultra fast switching speed, are susceptible to have harsh transients introduced by rapid change in the drain-to-source voltage. Therefore, the gate drive requirements of SiC-MOSFETs require a thorough analysis in order to prevent high dv/dt transients from causing erratic switching behavior or unnecessary switching loss. This paper provides a general review on the properties of SiC comparing some performances between Si-MOSFETs and SiC-MOSFETs for typical power electronics applications. The main constraints and issues of the SiC-MOSFET switching process are presented, and some recent proposed Gate Drivers to solve these constraints are presented throughout this work.

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    Authors: Vareilles, Élise; Barco Santa, Andres Felipe; Falcon, M.; Aldanondo, Michel; +1 Authors

    IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), Bangkok, THAILAND, DEC 10-13, 2013; International audience; This paper looks at the possibility of configuring high performance renovation of apartment buildings by the use of a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP). A new thermal envelope wraps the whole building and allows it to achieve a really low energy performance of 25 kWh/m(2)/year. This new thermal envelope is composed of rectangular panels, always comprising insulation and cladding, and sometimes including, in addition, doors, windows or solar modules. The panels can be fixed directly onto the walls or onto a metal structure around the whole building. The decision support system, based on CSP approaches, will simultaneously enable the interactive definition of the renovation, the associated bill of material (BOM) and the building site assembly process. The range of knowledge to exploit and to model leads us to integrate into a single decision support system different constraint types, such as classical, dynamic, geometric and global constraints, as well as their filtering methods.

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    Other literature type . 2013
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      Other literature type . 2013
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    Authors: Zegadi, L.; Rousseau, Jean-Jacques; ALLARD, Bruno; Tenant, Pierre; +1 Authors

    International audience; This paper describes a model for simulating the behavior of soft MnZn, This model takes into account both hysteresis and dynamic phenomena. The temperature is introduced using behavioral laws. In fact, the following model requires only few parameters. It estimates iron losses and characteristics, such as B(H), phi>(*) over bar * (t), and the induced electromotive force. The obtained results are compared with measured data for three soft MnZn ferrites currently used in power electronics. The comparison found good agreement in a wide range of operating frequencies for temperatures ranging from 40 to 140 degreesC.

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    Other literature type . 2000
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    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
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    Article . 2000
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      Other literature type . 2000
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      IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hirono, T.; Barbero, M.; Breugnon, P.; Godiot, S.; +11 Authors

    International audience; Depleted CMOS active sensors (DMAPS) are being developed for high-energy particle physics experiments in high radiation environments, such as in the ATLAS High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). Since charge collection by drift is mandatory for harsh radiation environment, the application of high bias voltage to high resistive sensor material is needed. In this work, a prototype of a DMAPS was fabricated in a 150nm CMOS process on a substrate with a resistivity of >2 k{\Omega}cm that was thinned to 100 {\mu}m. Full depletion occurs around 20V, which is far below the breakdown voltage of 110 V. A readout chip has been attached for fast triggered readout. Presented prototype also uses a concept of sub-pixel en/decoding three pixels of the prototype chip are readout by one pixel of the readout chip. Since radiation tolerance is one of the largest concerns in DMAPS, the CCPD_LF chip has been irradiated with X-rays and neutrons up to a total ionization dose of 50 Mrad and a fluence of 10E15neq/cm2, respectively.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.0315...
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    Article . 2016
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    https://doi.org/10.1109/nssmic...
    Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      http://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.0315...
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  • Authors: Chauvin, C.; Petit, J.; Héreil, P.L.; Boustié, Michel;

    In the field of dynamic high-pressure physics of condensed materials, the accurate knowl- edge of the thermodynamic state of a material is fundamental to understand its dynamic behaviour under stress. The equation of state of materials is verified in terms of pressure, density and internal energy thanks to the measurements of pressure and velocity under shock wave compression with a satisfying precision. The theoretical temperature evaluated from EOS remains discussed. So; its ac- curate measurement is of great interest, in particular at low temperature. However, in this range, measurements appear more difficult to perform. Because of this, a high-speed infrared three-wave- length pyrometer has been modified at CEG to perform measurements at very low temperature (<500 K). Besides, an emissive layer has been designed to increase the emissivity of the shocked surface. To reduce the uncertainty of the temperature measurement, it appears necessary to limit its emissivity to a 0.9-1 range. 1. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The technique to approach as close as possible the shock temperature is to record the spectral radiance emitted from the surface of the target through a window with a pyrometer. It is well- known technique above 900 K (1,2), but this technique is difficult to adapt for low radiance temperature measurements (<500 K) while guarantying a good precision. The aim of this work is to adapt a pyrometer to perform low radiance temperature measurements on plate impact experiments and to reduce the interface temperature measurement uncertainties by using an emissive layer at the interface.

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  • Authors: Lamy, T.; Curdy, J.C.; Sole, P.; Sortais, P.; +3 Authors

    The development of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at LPSC Grenoble (previously ISN) covers a wide range of applications. Micro-PHOENIX is a compact source whose magnetic confinement is fully generated by permanent magnets. The extraction geometry has been specially designed to manage high currents with a double electrode extraction system to improve the beam characteristics at high voltage. The ECRIS can accept a microwave power frequency from 10 to 18 GHz. It has been installed as a universal injector on the new charge breeder test bench in order to perform the widest range of experiments including mono- or multicharged ion injections. To characterize the analyzed extracted beam, a new emittance meter based on electrostatic deflection plates has been set up and permits one to obtain online high resolution measurements. The first objective of the experiments was to fulfill the future SPIRAL II requirements. After a technical description of the Micro-PHOENIX ECRIS and its beam analysis system, the first experimental results obtained with a single puller electrode will be presented. Thus, a D+ intensity of 5 mA at 39 kV is easily delivered within a normalized rms emittance of 0.092 π mm mrad, which is well below the 0.2 π mm mrad limit assuring a 100% RFQ transport efficiency as computed for the LINAG project. A more extensive study of emittance versus plasma parameters is in progress.

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