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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kristinsson, Sigfús Helgi; Busby, Natalie; Rorden, Christopher; Newman-Norlund, Roger; +8 Authors

    The association between age and language recovery in stroke remains unclear. Here, we used neuroimaging data to estimate brain age, a measure of structural integrity, and examined the extent to which brain age at stroke onset is associated with (i) cross-sectional language performance, and (ii) longitudinal recovery of language function, beyond chronological age alone. A total of 49 participants (age: 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 25 female) underwent routine clinical neuroimaging (T1) and a bedside evaluation of language performance (Bedside Evaluation Screening Test-2) at onset of left hemisphere stroke. Brain age was estimated from enantiomorphically reconstructed brain scans using a machine learning algorithm trained on a large sample of healthy adults. A subsample of 30 participants returned for follow-up language assessments at least 2 years after stroke onset. To account for variability in age at stroke, we calculated proportional brain age difference, i.e. the proportional difference between brain age and chronological age. Multiple regression models were constructed to test the effects of proportional brain age difference on language outcomes. Lesion volume and chronological age were included as covariates in all models. Accelerated brain age compared with age was associated with worse overall aphasia severity (F(1, 48) = 5.65, P = 0.022), naming (F(1, 48) = 5.13, P = 0.028), and speech repetition (F(1, 48) = 8.49, P = 0.006) at stroke onset. Follow-up assessments were carried out ≥2 years after onset; decelerated brain age relative to age was significantly associated with reduced overall aphasia severity (F(1, 26) = 5.45, P = 0.028) and marginally failed to reach statistical significance for auditory comprehension (F(1, 26) = 2.87, P = 0.103). Proportional brain age difference was not found to be associated with changes in naming (F(1, 26) = 0.23, P = 0.880) and speech repetition (F(1, 26) = 0.00, P = 0.978). Chronological age was only associated with naming performance at stroke onset (F(1, 48) = 4.18, P = 0.047). These results indicate that brain age as estimated based on routine clinical brain scans may be a strong biomarker for language function and recovery after stroke. Funding Information: This study was supported by the following grant sponsors: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (P50 DC014664; DC008355); National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NS054266). Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Peer reviewed

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    2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hinojosa JA; Moreno EM; Ferré P;

    © 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Standard neurocognitive models of language processing have tended to obviate the need for incorporating emotion processes, while affective neuroscience theories have typically been concerned with the way in which people communicate their emotions, and have often simply not addressed linguistic issues. Here, we summarise evidence from temporal and spatial brain imaging studies that have investigated emotion effects on lexical, semantic and morphosyntactic aspects of language during the comprehension of single words and sentences. The evidence reviewed suggests that emotion is represented in the brain as a set of semantic features in a distributed sensory, motor, language and affective network. Also, emotion interacts with a number of lexical, semantic and syntactic features in different brain regions and timings. This is in line with the proposals of interactive neurocognitive models of language processing, which assume the interplay between different representational levels during on-line language comprehension.

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    Authors: Serrano, Dolores R.; Lalatsa, Aikaterini; Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, M.; Bilbao-Ramos, Pablo E.; +9 Authors

    There are very few drug delivery systems that target key organs via the oral route, as oral delivery advances normally address gastrointestinal drug dissolution, permeation, and stability. Here we introduce a nanomedicine in which nanoparticles, while also protecting the drug from gastric degradation, are taken up by the gastrointestinal epithelia and transported to the lung, liver, and spleen, thus selectively enhancing drug bioavailability in these target organs and diminishing kidney exposure (relevant to nephrotoxic drugs). Our work demonstrates, for the first time, that oral particle uptake and translocation to specific organs may be used to achieve a beneficial therapeutic response. We have illustrated this using amphotericin B, a nephrotoxic drug encapsulated within N-palmitoyl-N-methyl-N,N-dimethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-6-O-glycol chitosan (GCPQ) nanoparticles, and have evidenced our approach in three separate disease states (visceral leishmaniasis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis) using industry standard models of the disease in small animals. The oral bioavailability of AmB-GCPQ nanoparticles is 24%. In all disease models, AmB-GCPQ nanoparticles show comparable efficacy to parenteral liposomal AmB (AmBisome). Our work thus paves the way for others to use nanoparticles to achieve a specific targeted delivery of drug to key organs via the oral route. This is especially important for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index.

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  • Authors: Aloui, K.; Nait-Ali, A.; Nacer, S.;

    In this paper, we describe a new biometric approach based on geometrical characteristics of brain shape. Specifically, we use these geometrics characteristics as a biometric feature to identify individuals. For this purpose, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images are considered. We show that using a single slice from an MRI volumetric image, acquired at a given level, one can extract many significant geometrical descriptors related to inter-individual variability of brain shape that can be also used to identify individuals. Explicitly, the proposed biometric approach combines two main phases. In the first phase, features extraction (FE) are achieved in order to obtain brain geometrical descriptors vector, called in this work GDB vector. A second phase is called similarity measurement (SM). Finally, the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS) database containing brain MRI Images. Results using 220 classes show that high accuracy of 98.76% to identify individuals are obtained.

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    Authors: Verger, G; Pares, P; Coll, P; Rello, J; +1 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Muntane, Gerard; Chillida, Marc; Aranda, Selena; Navarro, Arcadi; +1 Authors

    Background Discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 1 (DDR1) is present in multiple types of epithelial cells and is highly expressed in the nervous system. Previous studies have revealed that DDR1 is involved in schizophrenia (SCZ). Although the expression of DDR1 in oligodendrocytes has been described, its role in brain myelination is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the coexpression network of DDR1 in the human brain and to compare the list of DDR1 coexpressing genes with the list of genes containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with SCZ. Materials and Methods We used a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) of a dataset from four brain areas (the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, hippocampus, and striatum) and from four different intervals (I) of life (I-1 = 10-38 weeks postconception, I-2 >= 0 to = 6 to = 40 years of age). We compared the list of genes that are associated with SCZ in the GWAS Catalog with the list of genes coexpressing with DDR1 in each interval. Results Our study revealed that DDR1 was coexpressed with oligodendrocyte-related genes mainly in I-2 (adjP = 5.66e-24) and I-3 (adjP = 2.8e-114), which coincided with the coexpression of DDR1 with myelination-related genes (adjP = 9.04e-03 and 2.51e-08, respectively). DDR1 was also coexpressed with astrocyte-related genes in I-1 (adjP = 1.11e-71), I-2 (adjP = 2.12e-20) and I-4 (adjP = 9.93e-52) and with type 2 microglia-related genes in I-1 (adjP = 2.84e-08), I-2 (adjP = 5.68e-16) and I-4 (adjP = 3.66e-10). Moreover, we observed significant enrichment of SCZ susceptibility genes within the coexpression modules containing DDR1 in I-1 and I-4 (P = 1e-04 and 0.0037, respectively), durin

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    Authors: Aubonnet, Romain; Hassan, M; Mheich, A; Di Lorenzo, G; +2 Authors

    Objective.To decipher brain network dynamic remodeling from electroencephalography (EEG) during a complex postural control (PC) task combining virtual reality and a moving platform.Approach.EEG (64 electrodes) data from 158 healthy subjects were acquired. The experiment is divided into several phases, and visual and motor stimulation is applied progressively. We combined advanced source-space EEG networks with clustering algorithms to decipher the brain networks states (BNSs) that occurred during the task.Main results.The results show that BNS distribution describes the different phases of the experiment with specific transitions between visual, motor, salience, and default mode networks coherently. We also showed that age is a key factor that affects the dynamic transition of BNSs in a healthy cohort.Significance.This study validates an innovative approach, based on a robust methodology and a consequent cohort, to quantify the brain networks dynamics in the BioVRSea paradigm. This work is an important step toward a quantitative evaluation of brain activities during PC and could lay the foundation for developing brain-based biomarkers of PC-related disorders. Publisher Copyright: Creative Commons Attribution license. Peer reviewed

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    2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Petrov, Dmitry; Pedros, Ignacio; Artiach, Gonzalo; Sureda, Francesc X.; +9 Authors

    Global obesity is a pandemic status, estimated to affect over 2 billion people, that has resulted in an enormous strain on healthcare systems worldwide. The situation is compounded by the fact that apart from the direct costs associated with overweight pathology, obesity presents itself with a number of comorbidities, including an increased risk for the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer disease (AD), the main cause of senile dementia, is no exception. Spectacular failure of the pharmaceutical industry to come up with effective AD treatment strategies is forcing the broader scientific community to rethink the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to cognitive decline. To this end, the emphasis is once again placed on the experimental animal models of the disease. In the current study, we have focused on the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on hippocampal-dependent memory in C57/Bl6 Wild-type (WT) and APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice, a well-established mouse model of familial AD. Our results indicate that the continuous HFD administration starting at the time of weaning is sufficient to produce ?-amyloid-independent, hippocampal-dependent memory deficits measured by a 2-object novel-object recognition test (NOR) in mice as early as 6months of age. Furthermore, the resulting metabolic syndrome appears to have direct effects on brain insulin regulation and mitochondrial function. We have observed pathological changes related to both the proximal and distal insulin signaling pathway in the brains of HFD-fed WT and APP/PS1 mice. These changes are accompanied by a significantly reduced OXPHOS metabolism, suggesting that mitochondria play an important role in hippocampus-dependent memory formation and retention in both the HFD-treated and AD-like rodents at a

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    Authors: Lahti, Jari; Tuominen, Samuli; Yang, Qiong; Pergola, Giulio; +46 Authors

    Understanding the genomic basis of memory processes may help in combating neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, we examined the associations of common genetic variants with verbal short-term memory and verbal learning in adults without dementia or stroke (N = 53,637). We identified novel loci in the intronic region of CDH18, and at 13q21 and 3p21.1, as well as an expected signal in the APOE/APOC1/TOMM40 region. These results replicated in an independent sample. Functional and bioinformatic analyses supported many of these loci and further implicated POC1. We showed that polygenic score for verbal learning associated with brain activation in right parieto-occipital region during working memory task. Finally, we showed genetic correlations of these memory traits with several neurocognitive and health outcomes. Our findings suggest a role of several genomic loci in verbal memory processes. Publisher Copyright: © 2022, The Author(s). Peer reviewed

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    2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jensen MP; Day MA; Miró J;

    Chronic pain is common, and the available treatments do not provide adequate relief for most patients. Neuromodulatory interventions that modify brain processes underlying the experience of pain have the potential to provide substantial relief for some of these patients. The purpose of this Review is to summarize the state of knowledge regarding the efficacy and mechanisms of noninvasive neuromodulatory treatments for chronic pain. The findings provide support for the efficacy and positive side-effect profile of hypnosis, and limited evidence for the potential efficacy of meditation training, noninvasive electrical stimulation procedures, and neurofeedback procedures. Mechanisms research indicates that hypnosis influences multiple neurophysiological processes involved in the experience of pain. Evidence also indicates that mindfulness meditation has both immediate and long-term effects on cortical structures and activity involved in attention, emotional responding and pain. Less is known about the mechanisms of other neuromodulatory treatments. On the basis of the data discussed in this Review, training in the use of self-hypnosis might be considered a viable 'first-line' approach to treat chronic pain. More-definitive research regarding the benefits and costs of meditation training, noninvasive brain stimulation and neurofeedback is needed before these treatments can be recommended for the treatment of chronic pain. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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    Authors: Kristinsson, Sigfús Helgi; Busby, Natalie; Rorden, Christopher; Newman-Norlund, Roger; +8 Authors

    The association between age and language recovery in stroke remains unclear. Here, we used neuroimaging data to estimate brain age, a measure of structural integrity, and examined the extent to which brain age at stroke onset is associated with (i) cross-sectional language performance, and (ii) longitudinal recovery of language function, beyond chronological age alone. A total of 49 participants (age: 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 25 female) underwent routine clinical neuroimaging (T1) and a bedside evaluation of language performance (Bedside Evaluation Screening Test-2) at onset of left hemisphere stroke. Brain age was estimated from enantiomorphically reconstructed brain scans using a machine learning algorithm trained on a large sample of healthy adults. A subsample of 30 participants returned for follow-up language assessments at least 2 years after stroke onset. To account for variability in age at stroke, we calculated proportional brain age difference, i.e. the proportional difference between brain age and chronological age. Multiple regression models were constructed to test the effects of proportional brain age difference on language outcomes. Lesion volume and chronological age were included as covariates in all models. Accelerated brain age compared with age was associated with worse overall aphasia severity (F(1, 48) = 5.65, P = 0.022), naming (F(1, 48) = 5.13, P = 0.028), and speech repetition (F(1, 48) = 8.49, P = 0.006) at stroke onset. Follow-up assessments were carried out ≥2 years after onset; decelerated brain age relative to age was significantly associated with reduced overall aphasia severity (F(1, 26) = 5.45, P = 0.028) and marginally failed to reach statistical significance for auditory comprehension (F(1, 26) = 2.87, P = 0.103). Proportional brain age difference was not found to be associated with changes in naming (F(1, 26) = 0.23, P = 0.880) and speech repetition (F(1, 26) = 0.00, P = 0.978). Chronological age was only associated with naming performance at stroke onset (F(1, 48) = 4.18, P = 0.047). These results indicate that brain age as estimated based on routine clinical brain scans may be a strong biomarker for language function and recovery after stroke. Funding Information: This study was supported by the following grant sponsors: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (P50 DC014664; DC008355); National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NS054266). Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Peer reviewed

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    2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hinojosa JA; Moreno EM; Ferré P;

    © 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Standard neurocognitive models of language processing have tended to obviate the need for incorporating emotion processes, while affective neuroscience theories have typically been concerned with the way in which people communicate their emotions, and have often simply not addressed linguistic issues. Here, we summarise evidence from temporal and spatial brain imaging studies that have investigated emotion effects on lexical, semantic and morphosyntactic aspects of language during the comprehension of single words and sentences. The evidence reviewed suggests that emotion is represented in the brain as a set of semantic features in a distributed sensory, motor, language and affective network. Also, emotion interacts with a number of lexical, semantic and syntactic features in different brain regions and timings. This is in line with the proposals of interactive neurocognitive models of language processing, which assume the interplay between different representational levels during on-line language comprehension.

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    Authors: Serrano, Dolores R.; Lalatsa, Aikaterini; Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, M.; Bilbao-Ramos, Pablo E.; +9 Authors

    There are very few drug delivery systems that target key organs via the oral route, as oral delivery advances normally address gastrointestinal drug dissolution, permeation, and stability. Here we introduce a nanomedicine in which nanoparticles, while also protecting the drug from gastric degradation, are taken up by the gastrointestinal epithelia and transported to the lung, liver, and spleen, thus selectively enhancing drug bioavailability in these target organs and diminishing kidney exposure (relevant to nephrotoxic drugs). Our work demonstrates, for the first time, that oral particle uptake and translocation to specific organs may be used to achieve a beneficial therapeutic response. We have illustrated this using amphotericin B, a nephrotoxic drug encapsulated within N-palmitoyl-N-methyl-N,N-dimethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-6-O-glycol chitosan (GCPQ) nanoparticles, and have evidenced our approach in three separate disease states (visceral leishmaniasis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis) using industry standard models of the disease in small animals. The oral bioavailability of AmB-GCPQ nanoparticles is 24%. In all disease models, AmB-GCPQ nanoparticles show comparable efficacy to parenteral liposomal AmB (AmBisome). Our work thus paves the way for others to use nanoparticles to achieve a specific targeted delivery of drug to key organs via the oral route. This is especially important for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index.

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  • Authors: Aloui, K.; Nait-Ali, A.; Nacer, S.;

    In this paper, we describe a new biometric approach based on geometrical characteristics of brain shape. Specifically, we use these geometrics characteristics as a biometric feature to identify individuals. For this purpose, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images are considered. We show that using a single slice from an MRI volumetric image, acquired at a given level, one can extract many significant geometrical descriptors related to inter-individual variability of brain shape that can be also used to identify individuals. Explicitly, the proposed biometric approach combines two main phases. In the first phase, features extraction (FE) are achieved in order to obtain brain geometrical descriptors vector, called in this work GDB vector. A second phase is called similarity measurement (SM). Finally, the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS) database containing brain MRI Images. Results using 220 classes show that high accuracy of 98.76% to identify individuals are obtained.

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    Authors: Verger, G; Pares, P; Coll, P; Rello, J; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Muntane, Gerard; Chillida, Marc; Aranda, Selena; Navarro, Arcadi; +1 Authors

    Background Discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 1 (DDR1) is present in multiple types of epithelial cells and is highly expressed in the nervous system. Previous studies have revealed that DDR1 is involved in schizophrenia (SCZ). Although the expression of DDR1 in oligodendrocytes has been described, its role in brain myelination is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the coexpression network of DDR1 in the human brain and to compare the list of DDR1 coexpressing genes with the list of genes containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with SCZ. Materials and Methods We used a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) of a dataset from four brain areas (the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, hippocampus, and striatum) and from four different intervals (I) of life (I-1 = 10-38 weeks postconception, I-2 >= 0 to = 6 to = 40 years of age). We compared the list of genes that are associated with SCZ in the GWAS Catalog with the list of genes coexpressing with DDR1 in each interval. Results Our study revealed that DDR1 was coexpressed with oligodendrocyte-related genes mainly in I-2 (adjP = 5.66e-24) and I-3 (adjP = 2.8e-114), which coincided with the coexpression of DDR1 with myelination-related genes (adjP = 9.04e-03 and 2.51e-08, respectively). DDR1 was also coexpressed with astrocyte-related genes in I-1 (adjP = 1.11e-71), I-2 (adjP = 2.12e-20) and I-4 (adjP = 9.93e-52) and with type 2 microglia-related genes in I-1 (adjP = 2.84e-08), I-2 (adjP = 5.68e-16) and I-4 (adjP = 3.66e-10). Moreover, we observed significant enrichment of SCZ susceptibility genes within the coexpression modules containing DDR1 in I-1 and I-4 (P = 1e-04 and 0.0037, respectively), durin

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    Authors: Aubonnet, Romain; Hassan, M; Mheich, A; Di Lorenzo, G; +2 Authors

    Objective.To decipher brain network dynamic remodeling from electroencephalography (EEG) during a complex postural control (PC) task combining virtual reality and a moving platform.Approach.EEG (64 electrodes) data from 158 healthy subjects were acquired. The experiment is divided into several phases, and visual and motor stimulation is applied progressively. We combined advanced source-space EEG networks with clustering algorithms to decipher the brain networks states (BNSs) that occurred during the task.Main results.The results show that BNS distribution describes the different phases of the experiment with specific transitions between visual, motor, salience, and default mode networks coherently. We also showed that age is a key factor that affects the dynamic transition of BNSs in a healthy cohort.Significance.This study validates an innovative approach, based on a robust methodology and a consequent cohort, to quantify the brain networks dynamics in the BioVRSea paradigm. This work is an important step toward a quantitative evaluation of brain activities during PC and could lay the foundation for developing brain-based biomarkers of PC-related disorders. Publisher Copyright: Creative Commons Attribution license. Peer reviewed

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      2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Petrov, Dmitry; Pedros, Ignacio; Artiach, Gonzalo; Sureda, Francesc X.; +9 Authors

    Global obesity is a pandemic status, estimated to affect over 2 billion people, that has resulted in an enormous strain on healthcare systems worldwide. The situation is compounded by the fact that apart from the direct costs associated with overweight pathology, obesity presents itself with a number of comorbidities, including an increased risk for the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer disease (AD), the main cause of senile dementia, is no exception. Spectacular failure of the pharmaceutical industry to come up with effective AD treatment strategies is forcing the broader scientific community to rethink the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to cognitive decline. To this end, the emphasis is once again placed on the experimental animal models of the disease. In the current study, we have focused on the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on hippocampal-dependent memory in C57/Bl6 Wild-type (WT) and APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice, a well-established mouse model of familial AD. Our results indicate that the continuous HFD administration starting at the time of weaning is sufficient to produce ?-amyloid-independent, hippocampal-dependent memory deficits measured by a 2-object novel-object recognition test (NOR) in mice as early as 6months of age. Furthermore, the resulting metabolic syndrome appears to have direct effects on brain insulin regulation and mitochondrial function. We have observed pathological changes related to both the proximal and distal insulin signaling pathway in the brains of HFD-fed WT and APP/PS1 mice. These changes are accompanied by a significantly reduced OXPHOS metabolism, suggesting that mitochondria play an important role in hippocampus-dependent memory formation and retention in both the HFD-treated and AD-like rodents at a

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    Authors: Lahti, Jari; Tuominen, Samuli; Yang, Qiong; Pergola, Giulio; +46 Authors

    Understanding the genomic basis of memory processes may help in combating neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, we examined the associations of common genetic variants with verbal short-term memory and verbal learning in adults without dementia or stroke (N = 53,637). We identified novel loci in the intronic region of CDH18, and at 13q21 and 3p21.1, as well as an expected signal in the APOE/APOC1/TOMM40 region. These results replicated in an independent sample. Functional and bioinformatic analyses supported many of these loci and further implicated POC1. We showed that polygenic score for verbal learning associated with brain activation in right parieto-occipital region during working memory task. Finally, we showed genetic correlations of these memory traits with several neurocognitive and health outcomes. Our findings suggest a role of several genomic loci in verbal memory processes. Publisher Copyright: © 2022, The Author(s). Peer reviewed

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    2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jensen MP; Day MA; Miró J;

    Chronic pain is common, and the available treatments do not provide adequate relief for most patients. Neuromodulatory interventions that modify brain processes underlying the experience of pain have the potential to provide substantial relief for some of these patients. The purpose of this Review is to summarize the state of knowledge regarding the efficacy and mechanisms of noninvasive neuromodulatory treatments for chronic pain. The findings provide support for the efficacy and positive side-effect profile of hypnosis, and limited evidence for the potential efficacy of meditation training, noninvasive electrical stimulation procedures, and neurofeedback procedures. Mechanisms research indicates that hypnosis influences multiple neurophysiological processes involved in the experience of pain. Evidence also indicates that mindfulness meditation has both immediate and long-term effects on cortical structures and activity involved in attention, emotional responding and pain. Less is known about the mechanisms of other neuromodulatory treatments. On the basis of the data discussed in this Review, training in the use of self-hypnosis might be considered a viable 'first-line' approach to treat chronic pain. More-definitive research regarding the benefits and costs of meditation training, noninvasive brain stimulation and neurofeedback is needed before these treatments can be recommended for the treatment of chronic pain. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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