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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

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    Other ORP type . 2020
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    Authors: Villamor, Eduardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Alomar, Yaser Ibrahim; Passera, Sofia; +3 Authors

    Cerebellar hemorrhage (CBH) represents the most commonly acquired lesion of the posterior fossa in the neonatal period. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies exploring the perinatal risk factors and neurological outcome of CBH in preterm infants. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if they examined preterm infants and reported primary data on maternal, obstetric, or perinatal characteristics, and/or outcomes of infants with and without CBH. A random-effects model was used to calculate mean differences (MD), odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found 231 potentially relevant studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria (4,236 infants, 347 CBH cases). Meta-analysis could not demonstrate a significant association between CBH and multiple gestation, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, use of antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery, or infant sex. Infants with CBH had a significantly lower gestational age (6 studies, MD -1.55 weeks, 95% CI -1.93 to -1.16) and birth weight (6 studies, MD -173g, 95% CI -225 to -120), and significantly higher rates of intubation at birth, hypotension, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CBH was significantly associated with delayed mental (6 studies, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.20) and psychomotor (6 studies, OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.34 to 9.76) development, and higher rates of cerebral palsy (4 studies, OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.19). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis shows that the youngest and sickest preterm infants are at higher risk of developing CBH. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of CBH and reinforce the idea that cerebellar injury in very preterm newborns has important neurodevelopmental consequences among survivors.

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    Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Landers, Maud; Sitskoorn, Margriet; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; +1 Authors

    Background: Over the past decade, the functional importance of white matter pathways has been increasingly acknowledged in neurosurgical planning. A method to directly study anatomo-functional correlations is direct electrical stimulation (DES). DES has been widely accepted by neurosurgeons as a reliable tool to minimize the occurrence of permanent postoperative motor, vision and language deficits. In recent years, DES has also been used for stimulation mapping of other cognitive functions, such as executive functions and visuospatial awareness. Methods: The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence so far from DES studies on subcortical pathways that are involved in visuospatial awareness and in the following three executive functions: (1) inhibitory control, (2) working memory and (3) cognitive flexibility. Results: Eleven articles reported on intraoperative electrical stimulation of white matter pathways to map the cognitive functions and explicitly clarified which subcortical tract was stimulated. The results indicate that the right SLF-II is involved in visuospatial awareness, the left SLF-III and possibly the right SLF-I are involved in working memory and the cingulum is involved in cognitive flexibility. Conclusions: We were unable to draw any more specific conclusions, nor unequivocally establish the critical involvement of pathways in executive functions or visuospatial awareness due to the heterogeneity of the study types and methods, and the limited number of studies that assessed these relationships. Possible approaches for future research to obtain converging and more definite evidence for the involvement of pathways in specific cognitive functions are discussed.

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    Authors: Nogales, Cristian; Mamdouh, Zeinab M; List, Markus; Kiel, Christina; +2 Authors

    For complex diseases, most drugs are highly ineffective, and the success rate of drug discovery is in constant decline. While low quality, reproducibility issues, and translational irrelevance of most basic and preclinical research have contributed to this, the current organ-centricity of medicine and the 'one disease-one target-one drug' dogma obstruct innovation in the most profound manner. Systems and network medicine and their therapeutic arm, network pharmacology, revolutionize how we define, diagnose, treat, and, ideally, cure diseases. Descriptive disease phenotypes are replaced by endotypes defined by causal, multitarget signaling modules that also explain respective comorbidities. Precise and effective therapeutic intervention is achieved by synergistic multicompound network pharmacology and drug repurposing, obviating the need for drug discovery and speeding up clinical translation.

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    Authors: Snijders, Clara; Pries, Lotta-Katrin; Sgammeglia, Noemi; Al Jowf, Ghazi; +4 Authors

    Given the high prevalence of stress-related mental disorders, their impact on person, family, and society and the paucity of treatment options for most of these disorders, there is currently a pressing need for innovative approaches to deal with these issues and enhance well-being. One approach which has received increasing attention over the last decade is to shift our scientific and clinical focus from risk factors for psychopathology to factors promoting resilience and mental well-being. In order to summarize and evaluate the current state of scientific affairs on the biological basis of resilience, we provide an overview of the literature on animal and human studies of resilience. Because resilience can only truly be operationalized through longitudinal data collection and analyses, we focus primarily on longitudinal studies. This review shows that the concept of resilience is currently being operationalized, measured and even defined in widely variable manners, both within animal and human studies. We further provide an overview of existing and new strategies that could help promote resilience and which are proposed to be implemented more often in clinical situations. Finally, we summarize the challenges the field is facing and provide recommendations for future research.

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    Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: Fernández-Alvarez, J; Grassi, M; Colombo, D; Botella, C; +3 Authors

    BACKGROUND: For many years, biofeedback and neurofeedback have been implemented in the treatment of depression. However, the effectiveness of these techniques on depressive symptomatology is still controversial. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies extracted from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Embase. METHODS: Two different strings were considered for each of the two objectives of the study: A first group comprising studies patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a second group including studies targeting depressive symptomatology reduction in other mental or medical conditions. RESULTS: In the first group of studies including patients with MDD, the within-group analyses yielded an effect size of Hedges' g = 0.717, while the between-group analysis an effect size of Hedges' g = 1.050. Moderator analyses indicate that treatment efficacy is only significant when accounting for experimental design, in favor of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in comparison to non RCTs, whereas the type of neurofeedback, trial design, year of publication, number of sessions, age, sex and quality of study did not influence treatment efficacy. In the second group of studies, a small but significant effect between groups was found (Hedges' g = 0.303) in favor of bio- and neurofeedback against control groups. Moderator analyses revealed that treatment efficacy was not moderated by any of the sociodemographic and clinical variables. CONCLUSIONS: Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback and neurofeedback are associated with a reduction in self-reported depression. Despite the fact that the field has still a large room for improvement in terms of research quality, the results presented in this study suggests that both modalities may become relevant complementary strategies for the treatment of MDD and depressive symptomatology in the coming years.

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    Authors: Felsch, Corinna L.; Kuypers, Kim P.C.;

    BACKGROUND: Current first-line treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD), one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, is limited in its efficacy. Hence, novel treatment approaches are urgently needed. The current review suggests a combination of meditation-based interventions and the administration of a psychedelic as a future alternative treatment approach. While both separate treatments show promise in the treatment of (other) clinical conditions, their combination has not yet been investigated in the treatment of psychopathologies. AIM: With a systematic literature review, we aim to identify the potential mechanisms by which combined psilocybin and mindfulness treatment could adjust anomalous neural activity underlying SAD and exert therapeutic effects. RESULTS: Thirty experimental studies investigating the neural effects of meditation or psilocybin treatment in healthy and patient samples were included. Findings suggest that psilocybin-assisted meditation interventions might change cognitive processes like biased attention to threat linked to SAD by modulating connectivity of the salience network, balancing the activity and connectivity of cortical-midline structures, and increasing frontoparietal control over amygdala reactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies should investigate whether psilocybin-assisted mindfulness-based intervention can provide therapeutic benefits to SAD patients who are do not remit following conventional therapy.

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    Authors: Glimmerveen, Astrid; Verhulst, Marlous; Verbunt, Jeanine; Van Heugten, Caroline; +1 Authors

    OBJECTIVE: International guidelines recommend early screening for identification of patients who are at risk of long-term cognitive impairments after cardiac arrest. However, information about predictors is not provided. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify early predictors of long-term cognitive outcome after cardiac arrest. METHODS: Scopus and PubMed were systematically searched to identify studies on early predictors of long-term cognitive outcome in patients after cardiac arrest. The population included adult cardiac arrest survivors and potential early predictors were demographics, early cognitive screening scores, imaging measures, electroencephalographic measures, and levels of blood biomarkers. Two investigators reviewed studies for relevance, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. RESULTS: Five articles were included. Risk of bias was assessed as low or moderate. Most detected longterm cognitive impairments were in the domain of memory. Coma duration (2 studies), early cognitive impairments by the self-developed clinical Bedside Neuropsychological Test Battery (BNTB) screener (2 studies), and high S-100B levels on day 3 (2 studies) were the most prominent identified determinants of cognitive impairment on the group level. On the individual patient level, a score on the BNTB of ≤ 94.5 predicted cognitive impairments at 6 months after cardiac arrest (1 study without external validation). Studies on brain imaging and electroencephalography are lacking. CONCLUSION: Early bedside cognitive screening can contribute to prediction of long-term cognitive impairment after cardiac arrest. Evidence is scarce for S-100B levels and coma duration and absent for measures derived from brain imaging and electroencephalography.

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    Authors: McCulloch, Drummond E-Wen; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Barrett, Frederick Streeter; Doss, Manoj K; +9 Authors

    Clinical research into serotonergic psychedelics is expanding rapidly, showing promising efficacy across myriad disorders. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a commonly used strategy to identify psychedelic-induced changes in neural pathways in clinical and healthy populations. Here we, a large group of psychedelic imaging researchers, review the 42 research articles published to date, based on the 17 unique studies evaluating psychedelic effects on rs-fMRI, focusing on methodological variation. Prominently, we observe that nearly all studies vary in data processing and analysis methodology, two datasets are the foundation of over half of the published literature, and there is lexical ambiguity in common outcome metric terminology. We offer guidelines for future studies that encourage coherence in the field. Psychedelic rs-fMRI will benefit from the development of novel methods that expand our understanding of the brain mechanisms mediating its intriguing effects; yet, this field is at a crossroads where we must also consider the critical importance of consistency and replicability to effectively converge on stable representations of the neural effects of psychedelics.

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    Authors: Eekers, Danielle B. P.; Pijnappel, Esther N.; Schijns, Olaf E. M. G.; Colon, Albert; +6 Authors

    Purpose: Although the majority of adult epilepsy patients respond well to the current antiepileptic drug treatment, 20-40% of them are drug-resistant. In these patients, resective epilepsy surgery is a curative treatment option, for which, however, only a limited number of patients is eligible. The purpose is to summarize the outcome of radiotherapy for drug-resistant non-neoplastic focal epilepsy and to elucidate its efficacy for seizure outcome and long-term toxicity in adults. Method: A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed, Ovid Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and Web of Science. The methodological quality was evaluated using an adapted QUADAS checklist. Results: Sixteen out of 170 initially identified studies were included in this systematic literature study (n =170 patients). Twelve of the 16 studies described a positive effect of radiotherapy on seizure frequency reduction, with 98 of the patients (on average 58%, range 25%-95%) reporting no or rare seizures (defined as radiotherapy-adapted Engel class [RAEC] I and II. In total, 20% (34 patients) of the patients needed subsequent surgery due to radionecrosis, cysts formation, edema, and intracranial hypertension or remaining seizures. A dose-effect model was fitted to the available response data in an attempt to derive a relationship between prescribed dose and RAEC frequency. Conclusions: Radiotherapy is a possible non-invasive treatment option for patients with drug-resistant focal non-neoplastic epilepsy. This systematic review showed that there is only level 4 evidence of primary radiotherapy reducing seizure frequency in adult patients. Prospective randomized trials are needed to determine its exact value compared to other treatment approaches. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of British Epilepsy Association.

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    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

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    Other ORP type . 2020
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    Authors: Villamor, Eduardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Alomar, Yaser Ibrahim; Passera, Sofia; +3 Authors

    Cerebellar hemorrhage (CBH) represents the most commonly acquired lesion of the posterior fossa in the neonatal period. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies exploring the perinatal risk factors and neurological outcome of CBH in preterm infants. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if they examined preterm infants and reported primary data on maternal, obstetric, or perinatal characteristics, and/or outcomes of infants with and without CBH. A random-effects model was used to calculate mean differences (MD), odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found 231 potentially relevant studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria (4,236 infants, 347 CBH cases). Meta-analysis could not demonstrate a significant association between CBH and multiple gestation, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, use of antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery, or infant sex. Infants with CBH had a significantly lower gestational age (6 studies, MD -1.55 weeks, 95% CI -1.93 to -1.16) and birth weight (6 studies, MD -173g, 95% CI -225 to -120), and significantly higher rates of intubation at birth, hypotension, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CBH was significantly associated with delayed mental (6 studies, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.20) and psychomotor (6 studies, OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.34 to 9.76) development, and higher rates of cerebral palsy (4 studies, OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.19). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis shows that the youngest and sickest preterm infants are at higher risk of developing CBH. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of CBH and reinforce the idea that cerebellar injury in very preterm newborns has important neurodevelopmental consequences among survivors.

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    Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Landers, Maud; Sitskoorn, Margriet; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; +1 Authors

    Background: Over the past decade, the functional importance of white matter pathways has been increasingly acknowledged in neurosurgical planning. A method to directly study anatomo-functional correlations is direct electrical stimulation (DES). DES has been widely accepted by neurosurgeons as a reliable tool to minimize the occurrence of permanent postoperative motor, vision and language deficits. In recent years, DES has also been used for stimulation mapping of other cognitive functions, such as executive functions and visuospatial awareness. Methods: The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence so far from DES studies on subcortical pathways that are involved in visuospatial awareness and in the following three executive functions: (1) inhibitory control, (2) working memory and (3) cognitive flexibility. Results: Eleven articles reported on intraoperative electrical stimulation of white matter pathways to map the cognitive functions and explicitly clarified which subcortical tract was stimulated. The results indicate that the right SLF-II is involved in visuospatial awareness, the left SLF-III and possibly the right SLF-I are involved in working memory and the cingulum is involved in cognitive flexibility. Conclusions: We were unable to draw any more specific conclusions, nor unequivocally establish the critical involvement of pathways in executive functions or visuospatial awareness due to the heterogeneity of the study types and methods, and the limited number of studies that assessed these relationships. Possible approaches for future research to obtain converging and more definite evidence for the involvement of pathways in specific cognitive functions are discussed.

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    Authors: Nogales, Cristian; Mamdouh, Zeinab M; List, Markus; Kiel, Christina; +2 Authors

    For complex diseases, most drugs are highly ineffective, and the success rate of drug discovery is in constant decline. While low quality, reproducibility issues, and translational irrelevance of most basic and preclinical research have contributed to this, the current organ-centricity of medicine and the 'one disease-one target-one drug' dogma obstruct innovation in the most profound manner. Systems and network medicine and their therapeutic arm, network pharmacology, revolutionize how we define, diagnose, treat, and, ideally, cure diseases. Descriptive disease phenotypes are replaced by endotypes defined by causal, multitarget signaling modules that also explain respective comorbidities. Precise and effective therapeutic intervention is achieved by synergistic multicompound network pharmacology and drug repurposing, obviating the need for drug discovery and speeding up clinical translation.

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    Authors: Snijders, Clara; Pries, Lotta-Katrin; Sgammeglia, Noemi; Al Jowf, Ghazi; +4 Authors

    Given the high prevalence of stress-related mental disorders, their impact on person, family, and society and the paucity of treatment options for most of these disorders, there is currently a pressing need for innovative approaches to deal with these issues and enhance well-being. One approach which has received increasing attention over the last decade is to shift our scientific and clinical focus from risk factors for psychopathology to factors promoting resilience and mental well-being. In order to summarize and evaluate the current state of scientific affairs on the biological basis of resilience, we provide an overview of the literature on animal and human studies of resilience. Because resilience can only truly be operationalized through longitudinal data collection and analyses, we focus primarily on longitudinal studies. This review shows that the concept of resilience is currently being operationalized, measured and even defined in widely variable manners, both within animal and human studies. We further provide an overview of existing and new strategies that could help promote resilience and which are proposed to be implemented more often in clinical situations. Finally, we summarize the challenges the field is facing and provide recommendations for future research.

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    Authors: Fernández-Alvarez, J; Grassi, M; Colombo, D; Botella, C; +3 Authors

    BACKGROUND: For many years, biofeedback and neurofeedback have been implemented in the treatment of depression. However, the effectiveness of these techniques on depressive symptomatology is still controversial. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies extracted from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Embase. METHODS: Two different strings were considered for each of the two objectives of the study: A first group comprising studies patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a second group including studies targeting depressive symptomatology reduction in other mental or medical conditions. RESULTS: In the first group of studies including patients with MDD, the within-group analyses yielded an effect size of Hedges' g = 0.717, while the between-group analysis an effect size of Hedges' g = 1.050. Moderator analyses indicate that treatment efficacy is only significant when accounting for experimental design, in favor of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in comparison to non RCTs, whereas the type of neurofeedback, trial design, year of publication, number of sessions, age, sex and quality of study did not influence treatment efficacy. In the second group of studies, a small but significant effect between groups was found (Hedges' g = 0.303) in favor of bio- and neurofeedback against control groups. Moderator analyses revealed that treatment efficacy was not moderated by any of the sociodemographic and clinical variables. CONCLUSIONS: Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback and neurofeedback are associated with a reduction in self-reported depression. Despite the fact that the field has still a large room for improvement in terms of research quality, the results presented in this study suggests that both modalities may become relevant complementary strategies for the treatment of MDD and depressive symptomatology in the coming years.

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    Authors: Felsch, Corinna L.; Kuypers, Kim P.C.;

    BACKGROUND: Current first-line treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD), one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, is limited in its efficacy. Hence, novel treatment approaches are urgently needed. The current review suggests a combination of meditation-based interventions and the administration of a psychedelic as a future alternative treatment approach. While both separate treatments show promise in the treatment of (other) clinical conditions, their combination has not yet been investigated in the treatment of psychopathologies. AIM: With a systematic literature review, we aim to identify the potential mechanisms by which combined psilocybin and mindfulness treatment could adjust anomalous neural activity underlying SAD and exert therapeutic effects. RESULTS: Thirty experimental studies investigating the neural effects of meditation or psilocybin treatment in healthy and patient samples were included. Findings suggest that psilocybin-assisted meditation interventions might change cognitive processes like biased attention to threat linked to SAD by modulating connectivity of the salience network, balancing the activity and connectivity of cortical-midline structures, and increasing frontoparietal control over amygdala reactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies should investigate whether psilocybin-assisted mindfulness-based intervention can provide therapeutic benefits to SAD patients who are do not remit following conventional therapy.

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    Authors: Glimmerveen, Astrid; Verhulst, Marlous; Verbunt, Jeanine; Van Heugten, Caroline; +1 Authors

    OBJECTIVE: International guidelines recommend early screening for identification of patients who are at risk of long-term cognitive impairments after cardiac arrest. However, information about predictors is not provided. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify early predictors of long-term cognitive outcome after cardiac arrest. METHODS: Scopus and PubMed were systematically searched to identify studies on early predictors of long-term cognitive outcome in patients after cardiac arrest. The population included adult cardiac arrest survivors and potential early predictors were demographics, early cognitive screening scores, imaging measures, electroencephalographic measures, and levels of blood biomarkers. Two investigators reviewed studies for relevance, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. RESULTS: Five articles were included. Risk of bias was assessed as low or moderate. Most detected longterm cognitive impairments were in the domain of memory. Coma duration (2 studies), early cognitive impairments by the self-developed clinical Bedside Neuropsychological Test Battery (BNTB) screener (2 studies), and high S-100B levels on day 3 (2 studies) were the most prominent identified determinants of cognitive impairment on the group level. On the individual patient level, a score on the BNTB of ≤ 94.5 predicted cognitive impairments at 6 months after cardiac arrest (1 study without external validation). Studies on brain imaging and electroencephalography are lacking. CONCLUSION: Early bedside cognitive screening can contribute to prediction of long-term cognitive impairment after cardiac arrest. Evidence is scarce for S-100B levels and coma duration and absent for measures derived from brain imaging and electroencephalography.

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    Authors: McCulloch, Drummond E-Wen; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Barrett, Frederick Streeter; Doss, Manoj K; +9 Authors

    Clinical research into serotonergic psychedelics is expanding rapidly, showing promising efficacy across myriad disorders. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a commonly used strategy to identify psychedelic-induced changes in neural pathways in clinical and healthy populations. Here we, a large group of psychedelic imaging researchers, review the 42 research articles published to date, based on the 17 unique studies evaluating psychedelic effects on rs-fMRI, focusing on methodological variation. Prominently, we observe that nearly all studies vary in data processing and analysis methodology, two datasets are the foundation of over half of the published literature, and there is lexical ambiguity in common outcome metric terminology. We offer guidelines for future studies that encourage coherence in the field. Psychedelic rs-fMRI will benefit from the development of novel methods that expand our understanding of the brain mechanisms mediating its intriguing effects; yet, this field is at a crossroads where we must also consider the critical importance of consistency and replicability to effectively converge on stable representations of the neural effects of psychedelics.

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    Authors: Eekers, Danielle B. P.; Pijnappel, Esther N.; Schijns, Olaf E. M. G.; Colon, Albert; +6 Authors

    Purpose: Although the majority of adult epilepsy patients respond well to the current antiepileptic drug treatment, 20-40% of them are drug-resistant. In these patients, resective epilepsy surgery is a curative treatment option, for which, however, only a limited number of patients is eligible. The purpose is to summarize the outcome of radiotherapy for drug-resistant non-neoplastic focal epilepsy and to elucidate its efficacy for seizure outcome and long-term toxicity in adults. Method: A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed, Ovid Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and Web of Science. The methodological quality was evaluated using an adapted QUADAS checklist. Results: Sixteen out of 170 initially identified studies were included in this systematic literature study (n =170 patients). Twelve of the 16 studies described a positive effect of radiotherapy on seizure frequency reduction, with 98 of the patients (on average 58%, range 25%-95%) reporting no or rare seizures (defined as radiotherapy-adapted Engel class [RAEC] I and II. In total, 20% (34 patients) of the patients needed subsequent surgery due to radionecrosis, cysts formation, edema, and intracranial hypertension or remaining seizures. A dose-effect model was fitted to the available response data in an attempt to derive a relationship between prescribed dose and RAEC frequency. Conclusions: Radiotherapy is a possible non-invasive treatment option for patients with drug-resistant focal non-neoplastic epilepsy. This systematic review showed that there is only level 4 evidence of primary radiotherapy reducing seizure frequency in adult patients. Prospective randomized trials are needed to determine its exact value compared to other treatment approaches. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of British Epilepsy Association.

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