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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rahimpour Jounghani, Ali;

    Timing is an essential component of human actions, and is the foundation of any sort of sequential behavior, from picking up a glass to playing an instrument or dancing. Because of this, our understanding of how we represent time in the brain (i.e., the human timing system) critically relies on basic research on simple behaviors. Perception of temporal regularities is central to a wide range of basic actions, but also underpins abilities unique to humans such as the creation of complex musical scores. This dissertation is an in-depth examination of endogenously and exogenously guided timing behavior, and how context is a critical component of understanding rhythmic entrainment in humans. We previously validated “gold standard” functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings on action-based timing behavior using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) (Rahimpour et al., 2020). In particular, we observed significant hemodynamic responses in cortical areas in direct relation to the complexity of the behavior being performed. To do so, we probed multiple levels of contextual influence on action-based timing behavior and patterns of cortical activation as measured using fNIRS. Our findings highlighted several distinct, context-dependent parameters of specific timing behaviors. Here we further interrogate human timing abilities by introducing variations of our original experimental design, observing that subtle contextual variations have a significant impact on the degree of rhythmic entrainment given the presence/absence of metronomic input. We used electroencephalogram (EEG) to further validate our fNIRS findings, demonstrating that single trial neurobiological activity can be used to predict whether behavior is exogenously or endogenously guided. We also found that patterns of neural activity correspond to differential use of the internal timing system, and that specific differences in neural activity correlate with accuracy of action-based timing behavior. These findings emerged from our use of a novel deep learning approach to extract person-specific, neural-based features as predictors of behavioral performance. Finally, we examined whether fNIRS and EEG produced similar localization information, finding that the influence of training factors on cortical localization must be accounted for to make such comparisons.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: World Bank;

    In 2001, 16.6 million deaths globally were due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD); this figure will increase to 25 million by 2025. The two leading causes of death worldwide are cardiovascular coronary heart disease (which causes heart attack and heart failure) and cerebrovascular disease (which causes stroke). The direct and indirect costs of CVD are high: enormous health care costs and productivity/income losses. Of all global deaths from CVD, 65 percent occur in developing countries. This will increase to 75 percent by 2025. By then, cardiovascular disorders will be the biggest cause of lost disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide, and the second leading cause of DALY loss in developing countries. In developing countries, cardiovascular diseases predominantly affect people of working age (30-64 years). Death and disability in middle age has major social and economic consequences Prevention or treatment of risk factors for CVD is effective and sustainable in the long run. The risk of CVD can be reduced quickly and substantially with successful preventive practices. This also has a favorable impact on other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that share the same risk factors. Treatment of established CVD is expensive and resource intensive. Unregulated private health systems tend to direct a large proportion of resources to costly cardiovascular technologies available only to the wealthy few.

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    Authors: Norton, Anderson H. III; Seok, Youngmin; Choi-Koh, Sangsook;

    This paper reports on an investigation of mathematics anxiety (MA) among 40 Korean undergraduate students, using cognitive neuroscience. In Spring 2015, we collected data on correct response rates and reaction times from computer-based activities related to quadratic functions. We also measured brain response through event related potentials (ERP). Results demonstrate that students with higher mathematics anxiety (HMA) took more time than students with lower mathematics anxiety (LMA), both in translating equations to graphs and in translating graphs to equations. Moreover, based on analysis of ERP, brain waves of the HMA group recorded higher amplitude. In specific, both groups showed higher amplitude in translation from graphs to equation than vice versa. Higher amplitudes indicate greater demands on working memory, which we discuss in the concluding section, especially with regard to MA.

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    VTechWorks
    2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: VTechWorks
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ VTechWorksarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      VTechWorks
      2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: VTechWorks
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Man, Emily Yee-May;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Oughourlian, Talia;

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is a chronic, progressive disorder characterized by the age-related degeneration of osseocartilaginous structures within the cervical spine resulting in narrowing of the spinal canal and chronic compression of the spinal cord. Chronic spinal cord compression can result in persisting neck pain and neurological deficits including loss of fine motor skills, weakness or numbness in the upper limbs, and gait abnormalities and imbalance, ultimately requiring surgical intervention to relieve cord compression. DCM is the most common form of spinal cord injury in adults and as the elderly population continues to grow, incidence of DCM will rise alongside an increased demand on healthcare resources. Further investigation into the neural response to chronic spinal cord compression may not only inform disease progression and prognosis but may benefit patient monitoring and treatment planning.This dissertation aims to elucidate how symptom presentation, degree of spinal compression, microstructural and cellular integrity of the affected cord, and sex impact supraspinal structure and function in patients with DCM. To address the goals of the dissertation, we implemented a multimodal neuroimaging approach including anatomical, functional, and diffusion imaging of the brain and T2-weighted, diffusion, and metabolic imaging of the spine. First, we characterized and compared spinal cord compression induced alterations in cerebral morphometry and functional connectivity between symptomatic DCM and asymptomatic spinal cord compression (ASCC) patients to further uncover potential compensatory neural mechanisms driving symptom presentation and disease progression. Because the degree of cervical cord compression is not strongly linked to symptom severity, we investigated whether macrostructural, microstructural, and metabolic properties of the cervical spinal cord result in conventional anatomical and functional alterations within the brains of patients with DCM. Lastly, we identified sex-specific differences on cerebral structure and functional connectivity in patients with DCM. In summary, the dissertation revealed unique cerebral signatures between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, novel insights into the interrelationship between spinal and supraspinal alterations, and sex-specific supraspinal reorganization in patients with DCM. Findings from this work contribute to our knowledge of disease characteristics and compensatory neural mechanisms; and may benefit future development of non-invasive imaging biomarkers, more precise predicative models to inform disease progression, and novel pharmacological strategies to enhance neuroprotective mechanisms and functional recovery in patients with DCM.

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    Authors: Shkabatur, Jennifer; Kumagai, Saki;

    Mapping presents a compelling way to demystify complex data and concepts into useful visual information that most people can understand regardless of language, level of literacy, or culture. These maps can also be shared instantaneously with the world via the Internet. Interactive community mapping (ICM) is one method of information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled participatory mapping. In the development context, ICM can be a useful approach in helping community members, members of civil society organizations (CSOs), governments, and development partners to better picture and assess the needs and concerns of the mapped communities and adjust development plans, activities, and policies accordingly. This note is aimed at providing step-by-step guidance on the design and implementation of the ICM process to achieve an evidence-based and increasingly participatory decision-making approach for development projects. Relying on good practice examples from Kenya and Tanzania, this note seeks to provide a better understanding of how the potential benefits of ICM can be translated into tangible results. The note outlines some of the available ICM technology, delineate the enabling environment for ICM, and provide step-by-step guidance on how to effectively design and implement ICM in projects.

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    Authors: Jimenez, Amy Marie;

    Current classification systems of mental illness characterize bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) as discrete diagnostic categories, presupposing distinct presentation, etiology, and treatment, despite mounting evidence of epidemiological and genetic overlap between the two and in a way that does not fully reflect increasing knowledge of underlying biological mechanisms or pathogenesis. To further elucidate the nature of phenotypic overlap versus differentiation between the two, emotion perception and regulation deficits were examined via a task of affect recognition during fMRI. Data were collected at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden; demographically matched participants were recruited based on national medical records data in line with study protocol approved by Karolinska and UCLA IRB. Behaviorally, patients with SCZ (n=41) and BD (n=38) demonstrated similar impairment in affect labeling relative to controls (n=64); however, SCZ patients showed greater deficits during affect matching and the two groups showed differences in corresponding patterns of neural activation. During affect matching, whole-brain voxel-wise BOLD signal analysis indicated both patient groups showed hypoactivation relative to controls in putative social cognitive network regions but the specific regions differed by group, such that BD patients showed hypoactivation of posterior cingulate/precuneus, whereas SCZ patients showed hypoactivity in right amygdala/hippocampus. In addition, the SCZ group demonstrated failure of fronto-limbic circuitry to modulate ventral face and emotion processing regions during affect labeling; they showed hyperactivation of fusiform gyrus, inferior occipital cortex, and posterior superior and middle temporal gyrus and did not show negative functional connectivity between these regions as shown in controls and BD patients through PPI analysis. SCZ patients also showed aberrant positive cortico-cortical connectivity in frontal regions versus BD patients, suggestive of compensatory recruitment of additional frontal regions. The current study thus adds new and novel evidence to the ongoing debate regarding the utility of categorical classification of disease, demonstrating underlying disparateness in neurophysiology related to specific aspects of the socio-emotional domain and lending at least partial validation to the current diagnostic distinction. Implications for treatment considerations are also discussed.

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    Authors: Azevedo, Kathleen Cora Walker;
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    Authors: Bell, Clive; van Dillen, Susanne;

    This paper analyzes the effects of all-weather rural roads on households' net output prices, education and health in a poor, drought-prone region of India. Of 30 villages originally surveyed in 2001-02, when two had such roads, a further nine received them between January 2007 and December 2009 under the program Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana. Cross-section comparisons involving all villages and 'before and after' comparisons in the nine yielded these findings: (i) net output prices were 5 per cent or more higher; (ii) substantially fewer days of schooling were lost due to bad weather, largely because teachers had fewer absences; (iii) the acutely sick received more timely treatment and were more likely to be treated in a hospital than in the nearest primary health clinic; and (iv) the respondents ranked the resulting benefits in the domains of health and education at least as highly as the 'commercial' ones.

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    Authors: Hopp, Frederic Rene;

    In daily life, moral judgments are embedded in dynamic, complex, and contextualized environments. As we reason about morally right or wrong behaviors, our personal history shapes how we judge who did what to whom, where, when, and why. Yet, surprisingly little is known about how individual differences in moral dispositions modulate shared neural response patterns when processing increasingly complex moral scenarios. Consequently, we herein examine brain-behavior-trait coherence in moral cognition across three datasets of increasing naturalistic complexity. Applying intersubject representational similarity analysis, we demonstrate how between-subject variability in moral dispositions modulates similarity in neural responses when processing decontextualized moral vignettes, auditory movie summaries, political attack advertisement, soap opera clips, and full-length movies. Our approach highlights how brain-behavior-trait relationships during moral cognition are shaped by paradigm choice, and provides a reference for conducting research at the intersection of socio-moral cognition, communication science, and naturalistic neuroimaging.

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    Authors: Rahimpour Jounghani, Ali;

    Timing is an essential component of human actions, and is the foundation of any sort of sequential behavior, from picking up a glass to playing an instrument or dancing. Because of this, our understanding of how we represent time in the brain (i.e., the human timing system) critically relies on basic research on simple behaviors. Perception of temporal regularities is central to a wide range of basic actions, but also underpins abilities unique to humans such as the creation of complex musical scores. This dissertation is an in-depth examination of endogenously and exogenously guided timing behavior, and how context is a critical component of understanding rhythmic entrainment in humans. We previously validated “gold standard” functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings on action-based timing behavior using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) (Rahimpour et al., 2020). In particular, we observed significant hemodynamic responses in cortical areas in direct relation to the complexity of the behavior being performed. To do so, we probed multiple levels of contextual influence on action-based timing behavior and patterns of cortical activation as measured using fNIRS. Our findings highlighted several distinct, context-dependent parameters of specific timing behaviors. Here we further interrogate human timing abilities by introducing variations of our original experimental design, observing that subtle contextual variations have a significant impact on the degree of rhythmic entrainment given the presence/absence of metronomic input. We used electroencephalogram (EEG) to further validate our fNIRS findings, demonstrating that single trial neurobiological activity can be used to predict whether behavior is exogenously or endogenously guided. We also found that patterns of neural activity correspond to differential use of the internal timing system, and that specific differences in neural activity correlate with accuracy of action-based timing behavior. These findings emerged from our use of a novel deep learning approach to extract person-specific, neural-based features as predictors of behavioral performance. Finally, we examined whether fNIRS and EEG produced similar localization information, finding that the influence of training factors on cortical localization must be accounted for to make such comparisons.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    In 2001, 16.6 million deaths globally were due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD); this figure will increase to 25 million by 2025. The two leading causes of death worldwide are cardiovascular coronary heart disease (which causes heart attack and heart failure) and cerebrovascular disease (which causes stroke). The direct and indirect costs of CVD are high: enormous health care costs and productivity/income losses. Of all global deaths from CVD, 65 percent occur in developing countries. This will increase to 75 percent by 2025. By then, cardiovascular disorders will be the biggest cause of lost disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide, and the second leading cause of DALY loss in developing countries. In developing countries, cardiovascular diseases predominantly affect people of working age (30-64 years). Death and disability in middle age has major social and economic consequences Prevention or treatment of risk factors for CVD is effective and sustainable in the long run. The risk of CVD can be reduced quickly and substantially with successful preventive practices. This also has a favorable impact on other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that share the same risk factors. Treatment of established CVD is expensive and resource intensive. Unregulated private health systems tend to direct a large proportion of resources to costly cardiovascular technologies available only to the wealthy few.

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    Authors: Norton, Anderson H. III; Seok, Youngmin; Choi-Koh, Sangsook;

    This paper reports on an investigation of mathematics anxiety (MA) among 40 Korean undergraduate students, using cognitive neuroscience. In Spring 2015, we collected data on correct response rates and reaction times from computer-based activities related to quadratic functions. We also measured brain response through event related potentials (ERP). Results demonstrate that students with higher mathematics anxiety (HMA) took more time than students with lower mathematics anxiety (LMA), both in translating equations to graphs and in translating graphs to equations. Moreover, based on analysis of ERP, brain waves of the HMA group recorded higher amplitude. In specific, both groups showed higher amplitude in translation from graphs to equation than vice versa. Higher amplitudes indicate greater demands on working memory, which we discuss in the concluding section, especially with regard to MA.

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    VTechWorks
    2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: VTechWorks
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      VTechWorks
      2019
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Man, Emily Yee-May;
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    Authors: Oughourlian, Talia;

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is a chronic, progressive disorder characterized by the age-related degeneration of osseocartilaginous structures within the cervical spine resulting in narrowing of the spinal canal and chronic compression of the spinal cord. Chronic spinal cord compression can result in persisting neck pain and neurological deficits including loss of fine motor skills, weakness or numbness in the upper limbs, and gait abnormalities and imbalance, ultimately requiring surgical intervention to relieve cord compression. DCM is the most common form of spinal cord injury in adults and as the elderly population continues to grow, incidence of DCM will rise alongside an increased demand on healthcare resources. Further investigation into the neural response to chronic spinal cord compression may not only inform disease progression and prognosis but may benefit patient monitoring and treatment planning.This dissertation aims to elucidate how symptom presentation, degree of spinal compression, microstructural and cellular integrity of the affected cord, and sex impact supraspinal structure and function in patients with DCM. To address the goals of the dissertation, we implemented a multimodal neuroimaging approach including anatomical, functional, and diffusion imaging of the brain and T2-weighted, diffusion, and metabolic imaging of the spine. First, we characterized and compared spinal cord compression induced alterations in cerebral morphometry and functional connectivity between symptomatic DCM and asymptomatic spinal cord compression (ASCC) patients to further uncover potential compensatory neural mechanisms driving symptom presentation and disease progression. Because the degree of cervical cord compression is not strongly linked to symptom severity, we investigated whether macrostructural, microstructural, and metabolic properties of the cervical spinal cord result in conventional anatomical and functional alterations within the brains of patients with DCM. Lastly, we identified sex-specific differences on cerebral structure and functional connectivity in patients with DCM. In summary, the dissertation revealed unique cerebral signatures between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, novel insights into the interrelationship between spinal and supraspinal alterations, and sex-specific supraspinal reorganization in patients with DCM. Findings from this work contribute to our knowledge of disease characteristics and compensatory neural mechanisms; and may benefit future development of non-invasive imaging biomarkers, more precise predicative models to inform disease progression, and novel pharmacological strategies to enhance neuroprotective mechanisms and functional recovery in patients with DCM.

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    Authors: Shkabatur, Jennifer; Kumagai, Saki;

    Mapping presents a compelling way to demystify complex data and concepts into useful visual information that most people can understand regardless of language, level of literacy, or culture. These maps can also be shared instantaneously with the world via the Internet. Interactive community mapping (ICM) is one method of information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled participatory mapping. In the development context, ICM can be a useful approach in helping community members, members of civil society organizations (CSOs), governments, and development partners to better picture and assess the needs and concerns of the mapped communities and adjust development plans, activities, and policies accordingly. This note is aimed at providing step-by-step guidance on the design and implementation of the ICM process to achieve an evidence-based and increasingly participatory decision-making approach for development projects. Relying on good practice examples from Kenya and Tanzania, this note seeks to provide a better understanding of how the potential benefits of ICM can be translated into tangible results. The note outlines some of the available ICM technology, delineate the enabling environment for ICM, and provide step-by-step guidance on how to effectively design and implement ICM in projects.

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    Authors: Jimenez, Amy Marie;

    Current classification systems of mental illness characterize bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) as discrete diagnostic categories, presupposing distinct presentation, etiology, and treatment, despite mounting evidence of epidemiological and genetic overlap between the two and in a way that does not fully reflect increasing knowledge of underlying biological mechanisms or pathogenesis. To further elucidate the nature of phenotypic overlap versus differentiation between the two, emotion perception and regulation deficits were examined via a task of affect recognition during fMRI. Data were collected at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden; demographically matched participants were recruited based on national medical records data in line with study protocol approved by Karolinska and UCLA IRB. Behaviorally, patients with SCZ (n=41) and BD (n=38) demonstrated similar impairment in affect labeling relative to controls (n=64); however, SCZ patients showed greater deficits during affect matching and the two groups showed differences in corresponding patterns of neural activation. During affect matching, whole-brain voxel-wise BOLD signal analysis indicated both patient groups showed hypoactivation relative to controls in putative social cognitive network regions but the specific regions differed by group, such that BD patients showed hypoactivation of posterior cingulate/precuneus, whereas SCZ patients showed hypoactivity in right amygdala/hippocampus. In addition, the SCZ group demonstrated failure of fronto-limbic circuitry to modulate ventral face and emotion processing regions during affect labeling; they showed hyperactivation of fusiform gyrus, inferior occipital cortex, and posterior superior and middle temporal gyrus and did not show negative functional connectivity between these regions as shown in controls and BD patients through PPI analysis. SCZ patients also showed aberrant positive cortico-cortical connectivity in frontal regions versus BD patients, suggestive of compensatory recruitment of additional frontal regions. The current study thus adds new and novel evidence to the ongoing debate regarding the utility of categorical classification of disease, demonstrating underlying disparateness in neurophysiology related to specific aspects of the socio-emotional domain and lending at least partial validation to the current diagnostic distinction. Implications for treatment considerations are also discussed.

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    Authors: Azevedo, Kathleen Cora Walker;
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Bell, Clive; van Dillen, Susanne;

    This paper analyzes the effects of all-weather rural roads on households' net output prices, education and health in a poor, drought-prone region of India. Of 30 villages originally surveyed in 2001-02, when two had such roads, a further nine received them between January 2007 and December 2009 under the program Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana. Cross-section comparisons involving all villages and 'before and after' comparisons in the nine yielded these findings: (i) net output prices were 5 per cent or more higher; (ii) substantially fewer days of schooling were lost due to bad weather, largely because teachers had fewer absences; (iii) the acutely sick received more timely treatment and were more likely to be treated in a hospital than in the nearest primary health clinic; and (iv) the respondents ranked the resulting benefits in the domains of health and education at least as highly as the 'commercial' ones.

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