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  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2014-2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chounet, François;

    Pour comprendre les enjeux li´es `a l’endettement public dans la cr´edibilit´e des accords mon´etairesdans le cas de l’entre-deux-guerres, nous ´etudierons l’influence de l’endettement public sur l’´etalon-or,de sa fondation dans la seconde moiti´e du XIXe si`ecle, `a son abandon au cours de la grande d´epression.La qualit´e des finances publiques, en particulier l’endettement public, fut d´eterminante dans la capacit´ed’une nation `a adh´erer `a cet accord mon´etaire. L’endettement public joua aussi un rˆole d´ecisif dans lafin de ces syst`emes mon´etaires, `a l’issue de la Grande Guerre et lors de la grande d´epression. Dans unsecond temps, notre d´emarche consistera `a comprendre les m´ecanismes qui conduisirent l’endettementpublic `a ˆetre en partie responsable de la fin de l’´etalon de change-or et de l’´emergence de nouveauxblocs mon´etaires dans les ann´ees trente. Face `a la grande d´epression, les modalit´es d’organisation et defonctionnement de cet accord mon´etaire, rendirent impossible son maintien. Si les variables ´economiqueset politiques furent d´eterminantes dans son abandon, celles d’endettement public jou`erent aussi. Apr`esavoir d´ecrit les modalit´es de sortie de l’´etalon de change-or, nous montrerons les m´ecanismes th´eoriquesqui lient les crises mon´etaires et les crises d’endettement et les appliquerons `a la grande d´epression. Nous´etudierons en particulier le cas de la France. Nous montrerons `a l’aide d’un mod`ele de dur´ee, l’influencede la dette publique dans le maintien des parit´es-or pendant la crise. Enfin, nous verrons comment denouveaux blocs mon´etaires se form`erent. To understand the challenges linked to public debt in credibility of monetary agreementsbetween the World Wars, we shall study influence of public debt on the gold standard, from its founda-tion in the second half of the XIXth century to end during the Great Depression. The quality of publicfinances, in particular the public debt, was determining in the capacity of a nation to subscribe to thismonetary agreement. The public debt also had a decisive role in the end of these monetary systems, atthe end of World War I and during the Great Depression. In a second part, our approach will consistin understanding mechanisms which led public debt to be partly accountable for the end of the gold-exchange standard and the rise of new monetary blocks in the thirties. Facing the Great Depression, themodalities of organization and functioning of this monetary agreement, made impossible to sustain it. Ifeconomic and political variables were determining in its end, variables linked to public debt played too.Having described modalities of release of gold-exchange standard, we shall show the theoretical mecha-nisms which link monetary crisis and debts crisis and we will applied them to the Great Depression. Wewill study in particular the case of France. We shall show using a duration model, influence of publicdebt in preservation of gold parity during the crisis. Finally, we shall see how new monetary blocks formed.

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    Other literature type . 2016
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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Doctoral thesis
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    Authors: Guan, Qianwen;

    International audience; Previous work shows that listeners tend to perceive an illusory vowel inside consonant clusters that are illegal in their native language [1],[2]. But few studies have been concerned with the perception of tones in connection with L2 phonotactics, specifically for L1 speakers of tone languages. This study examines how L1 speakers of a tone language (Mandarin) perceive the clusters of an L2 language without tone (Russian). The issue that we address is how the perception of L2 phonotactics relates to the perception of tones. Some studies of loanwords showed that speakers of languages preferring simple CV syllable structure insert an illusory vowel as well as an illusory tone inside illegal consonant clusters [5], [6]. Our study investigates experimentally the interaction of phonotactic and prosodic adaptation for Mandarin L1. For this purpose we tested the perception of non-native clusters by monolingual Mandarin speakers. The experiment was conducted in Beijing, with 24 participants especially recruited from among monolingual speakers with minimal exposure to a foreign language. The stimuli were non-words produced by a Russian native speaker, containing CC sequences and controls (see table 1). The participants were asked to transcribe each stimulus they heard in Pinyin, including tones. Different types of transcription errors (e.g. epenthesis, metathesis) were observed and analyzed statistically. In this abstract I report only the general result, and I focus on the transcription of tones. The most frequent transcription included vowel epenthesis in the clusters. The illusory vowel is always perceived as short central [ɤ] (akta->akɤta), except after a labial (ipta->iputa). In the controls, the vowel /a/ between clusters is perceived as /a/ when it precedes a stressed syllable (katápa). When it follows a stressed syllable (ákata), it is perceived as central /ɤ/. This response reflects the fact that in Russian, an unstressed vowel preceding stress is less reduced than an unstressed vowel elsewhere in the word [3]. Thus, Mandarin listeners can still perceive a moderately reduced [a] in pre-tonic position, but report a fully reduced vowel in post-tonic position. Of the 24 participants, only 8 could transcribe tones. This is because Pinyin transcription, though commonly used, rarely includes tones. Moreover, the participants do not have more than high school education and do not write regularly. The results of the 8 speakers are summarized and discussed below. Word position and position with respect to stress. In the Russian stimuli, the stressed syllable is realized with an F0 peak. The listeners' responses thus correspond to the low F0 in the pre-stressed syllable, and to the falling F0 on the post-stressed syllable, respectively (fig. 1). Vowel quality. Overall, vowel quality, whether of illusory vowels or of real vowels, does not influence the perception of illusory tones (p>0.05). Consonant type. There is a significant difference of tone perception in relation to phonotactics in initial, pre-stressed clusters. Listeners reported high tone on the illusory vowel significantly more often in stop-stop (e.g., ktápa) than in stop-nasal clusters (p0.05), on a real vowel. In the clusters, where no vowel is actually produced, the audible F0 movement is very fast, rising toward the peak of the stressed vowel. The start of the F0 rise is influenced by the consonant type [4]: after a voiceless stop F0 rises in the following vowel, while after a sonorant stop F0 falls. In the controls (katápa), F0 starts low on the unstressed vowel, and rises into the following stressed syllable. The participants seem to respond to this systematic rise, rather than to the subtler effects of consonant-type.

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    Authors: E. Messaritaki; Stavros I. Dimitriadis; Derek K. Jones;

    Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a data-driven algorithm to define the graph topology. The test-retest data of the Human Connectome Project were used to compare the reproducibility of the graphs and their various attributes (edges, topologies, graph theoretical metrics) derived through those schemes, for diffusion images acquired with three different diffusion weightings. The impact of the scheme on the statistical power of the study and on the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention was also calculated. The reproducibility of the graphs and their attributes depended heavily on the graph construction scheme. Graph reproducibility was higher for schemes that used thresholding to define the graph topology, while data-driven schemes performed better at topology reproducibility (mean similarities of 0.962 and 0.984 respectively, for graphs derived from diffusion images with b=2000 s/mm2). Additionally, schemes that used thresholding resulted in better reproducibility for local graph theoretical metrics (intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of the order of 0.8), compared to data-driven schemes. Thresholded and data-driven schemes resulted in high (0.86 or higher) ICCs only for schemes that use exclusively the number of streamlines to construct the graphs. Crucially, the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention could change by a factor of two or more depending on the scheme used, affecting the power of studies to reveal the effects of interest. Highlights • The reproducibility of graphs depends on the graph-construction scheme. • The reproducibility of graph theoretical metrics also depends on the scheme used. • The reproducibility of edge weights depends on the graph-construction scheme. • Structural network graphs are fairly consistent across diffusion weightings.

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  • Authors: A, Cummings; J, Chataway;

    Multiple sclerosis, always challenging, hands down a particular gauntlet with the concept of the radiologically isolated syndrome. This article discusses what it is, recent developments in the field and how these patients should be managed.

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    Authors: Popov, Tzvetan; Gips, Bart; Weisz, Nathan; Jensen, Ole Alexander Askeland;

    AbstractSpatially selective modulation of alpha power (8–14 Hz) is a robust finding in electrophysiological studies of visual attention, and has been recently generalized to auditory spatial attention. This modulation pattern is interpreted as reflecting a top-down mechanism for suppressing distracting input from unattended directions of sound origin. The present study on auditory spatial attention extends this interpretation by demonstrating that alpha power modulation is closely linked to oculomotor action. We designed an auditory paradigm in which participants were required to attend to upcoming sounds from one of 24 loudspeakers arranged in a circular array around the head. Maintaining the location of an auditory cue was associated with a topographically modulated distribution of posterior alpha power resembling the findings known from visual attention. Multivariate analyses allowed the prediction of the sound location in the horizontal plane. Importantly, this prediction was also possible, when derived from signals capturing saccadic activity. A control experiment on auditory spatial attention confirmed that, in absence of any visual/auditory input, lateralization of alpha power is linked to the lateralized direction of gaze. Attending to an auditory target engages oculomotor and visual cortical areas in a topographic manner akin to the retinotopic organization associated with visual attention.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cerebral Cortexarrow_drop_down
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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Zurich Open Repository and Archive
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2022
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      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Taylor, JSH; Davis, Matthew H; Rastle, Kathleen;

    Reading involves transforming arbitrary visual symbols into sounds and meanings. This study interrogated the neural representations in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) that support this transformation process. Twenty-four adults learned to read 2 sets of 24 novel words that shared phonemes and semantic categories but were written in different artificial orthographies. Following 2 wk of training, participants read the trained words while neural activity was measured with functional MRI. Representational similarity analysis on item pairs from the same orthography revealed that right vOT and posterior regions of left vOT were sensitive to basic visual similarity. Left vOT encoded letter identity and representations became more invariant to position along a posterior-to-anterior hierarchy. Item pairs that shared sounds or meanings, but were written in different orthographies with no letters in common, evoked similar neural patterns in anterior left vOT. These results reveal a hierarchical, posterior-to-anterior gradient in vOT, in which representations of letters become increasingly invariant to position and are transformed to convey spoken language information. Significance Learning to read is the most important milestone in a child’s education. However, controversies remain regarding how readers’ brains transform written words into sounds and meanings. We address these by combining artificial language learning with neuroimaging to reveal how the brain represents written words. Participants learned to read new words written in 2 different alphabets. Following 2 wk of training, we found a hierarchy of brain areas that support reading. Letter position is represented more flexibly from lower to higher visual regions. Furthermore, higher visual regions encode information about word sounds and meanings. These findings advance our understanding of how the brain comprehends language from arbitrary visual symbols.

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    Apollo
    Article . 2020
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Apollo
      Article . 2020
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2019
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • Authors: Ciaran Clarke; Finian Bannon; Norbertas Skokauskas;

    Reason for withdrawal from publication The authors are no longer working on the full review because it is now out-of-date: EEG has largely been replaced by neuro-imaging.

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    Authors: McCrea, Michael; Meier, Timothy; Huber, Daniel; Ptito, Alain; +8 Authors

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of published literature on advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing in the assessment of sport-related concussion (SRC). Data sources Computerised searches of Medline, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Scopus and Cochrane Library from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016 were done. There were 3222 articles identified. Study selection In addition to medical subject heading terms, a study was included if (1) published in English, (2) represented original research, (3) involved human research, (4) pertained to SRC and (5) involved data from neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers or genetic testing collected within 6 months of injury. Ninety-eight studies qualified for review (76 neuroimaging, 16 biomarkers and 6 genetic testing). Data extraction Separate reviews were conducted for neuroimaging, biomarkers and genetic testing. A standardised data extraction tool was used to document study design, population, tests employed and key findings. Reviewers used a modified quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) tool to rate the risk of bias, and a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to rate the overall level of evidence for each search. Data synthesis Results from the three respective reviews are compiled in separate tables and an interpretive summary of the findings is provided. Conclusions Advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing are important research tools, but require further validation to determine their ultimate clinical utility in the evaluation of SRC. Future research efforts should address current gaps that limit clinical translation. Ultimately, research on neurobiological and genetic aspects of SRC is predicted to have major translational significance to evidence-based approaches to clinical management of SRC, much like applied clinical research has had over the past 20 years.

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    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: Datacite
    British Journal of Sports Medicine
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Apollo
      Article . 2017
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      British Journal of Sports Medicine
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    Authors: David P, Carey; Leah T, Johnstone;

    Speech and language-related functions tend to depend on the left hemisphere more than the right in most right-handed (dextral) participants. This relationship is less clear in non-right handed (adextral) people, resulting in surprisingly polarised opinion on whether or not they are as lateralised as right handers. The present analysis investigates this issue by largely ignoring methodological differences between the different neuroscientific approaches to language lateralization, as well as discrepancies in how dextral and adextral participants were recruited or defined. Here we evaluate the tendency for dextrals to be more left hemisphere dominant than adextrals, using random effects meta analyses. In spite of several limitations, including sample size (in the adextrals in particular), missing details on proportions of groups who show directional effects in many experiments, and so on, the different paradigms all point to proportionally increased left hemispheric dominance in the dextrals. These results are analysed in light of the theoretical importance of these subtle differences for understanding the cognitive neuroscience of language, as well as the unusual asymmetry in most adextrals.

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    Frontiers in Psychology
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Psychology
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    Authors: Subong Kim; Adam Schwalje; Andrew S.K. Liu; Phillip E. Gander; +3 Authors

    AbstractUnderstanding speech in noise (SiN) is a complex task that recruits multiple cortical subsystems. There is a variance in individuals’ ability to understand SiN that cannot be explained by simple hearing profiles, which suggests that central factors may underlie the variance in SiN ability. Here, we elucidated a few cortical functions involved during a SiN task and their contributions to individual variance using both within- and across-subject approaches. Through our within-subject analysis of source-localized electroencephalography, we investigated how acoustic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) alters cortical evoked responses to a target word across the speech recognition areas, finding stronger responses in left supramarginal gyrus (SMG, BA40 thedorsal lexiconarea) with quieter noise. Through an individual differences approach, we found that listeners show different neural sensitivity to the background noise and target speech, reflected in the amplitude ratio of earlier auditory-cortical responses to speech and noise, named as aninternal SNR. Listeners with betterinternal SNRshowed better SiN performance. Further, we found that the post-speech time SMG activity explains a further amount of variance in SiN performance that is not accounted for byinternal SNR. This result demonstrates that at least two cortical processes contribute to SiN performance independently: pre-target time processing to attenuate neural representation of background noise and post-target time processing to extract information from speech sounds.

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    Authors: Chounet, François;

    Pour comprendre les enjeux li´es `a l’endettement public dans la cr´edibilit´e des accords mon´etairesdans le cas de l’entre-deux-guerres, nous ´etudierons l’influence de l’endettement public sur l’´etalon-or,de sa fondation dans la seconde moiti´e du XIXe si`ecle, `a son abandon au cours de la grande d´epression.La qualit´e des finances publiques, en particulier l’endettement public, fut d´eterminante dans la capacit´ed’une nation `a adh´erer `a cet accord mon´etaire. L’endettement public joua aussi un rˆole d´ecisif dans lafin de ces syst`emes mon´etaires, `a l’issue de la Grande Guerre et lors de la grande d´epression. Dans unsecond temps, notre d´emarche consistera `a comprendre les m´ecanismes qui conduisirent l’endettementpublic `a ˆetre en partie responsable de la fin de l’´etalon de change-or et de l’´emergence de nouveauxblocs mon´etaires dans les ann´ees trente. Face `a la grande d´epression, les modalit´es d’organisation et defonctionnement de cet accord mon´etaire, rendirent impossible son maintien. Si les variables ´economiqueset politiques furent d´eterminantes dans son abandon, celles d’endettement public jou`erent aussi. Apr`esavoir d´ecrit les modalit´es de sortie de l’´etalon de change-or, nous montrerons les m´ecanismes th´eoriquesqui lient les crises mon´etaires et les crises d’endettement et les appliquerons `a la grande d´epression. Nous´etudierons en particulier le cas de la France. Nous montrerons `a l’aide d’un mod`ele de dur´ee, l’influencede la dette publique dans le maintien des parit´es-or pendant la crise. Enfin, nous verrons comment denouveaux blocs mon´etaires se form`erent. To understand the challenges linked to public debt in credibility of monetary agreementsbetween the World Wars, we shall study influence of public debt on the gold standard, from its founda-tion in the second half of the XIXth century to end during the Great Depression. The quality of publicfinances, in particular the public debt, was determining in the capacity of a nation to subscribe to thismonetary agreement. The public debt also had a decisive role in the end of these monetary systems, atthe end of World War I and during the Great Depression. In a second part, our approach will consistin understanding mechanisms which led public debt to be partly accountable for the end of the gold-exchange standard and the rise of new monetary blocks in the thirties. Facing the Great Depression, themodalities of organization and functioning of this monetary agreement, made impossible to sustain it. Ifeconomic and political variables were determining in its end, variables linked to public debt played too.Having described modalities of release of gold-exchange standard, we shall show the theoretical mecha-nisms which link monetary crisis and debts crisis and we will applied them to the Great Depression. Wewill study in particular the case of France. We shall show using a duration model, influence of publicdebt in preservation of gold parity during the crisis. Finally, we shall see how new monetary blocks formed.

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    Other literature type . 2016
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    Oskar Bordeaux
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    Authors: Guan, Qianwen;

    International audience; Previous work shows that listeners tend to perceive an illusory vowel inside consonant clusters that are illegal in their native language [1],[2]. But few studies have been concerned with the perception of tones in connection with L2 phonotactics, specifically for L1 speakers of tone languages. This study examines how L1 speakers of a tone language (Mandarin) perceive the clusters of an L2 language without tone (Russian). The issue that we address is how the perception of L2 phonotactics relates to the perception of tones. Some studies of loanwords showed that speakers of languages preferring simple CV syllable structure insert an illusory vowel as well as an illusory tone inside illegal consonant clusters [5], [6]. Our study investigates experimentally the interaction of phonotactic and prosodic adaptation for Mandarin L1. For this purpose we tested the perception of non-native clusters by monolingual Mandarin speakers. The experiment was conducted in Beijing, with 24 participants especially recruited from among monolingual speakers with minimal exposure to a foreign language. The stimuli were non-words produced by a Russian native speaker, containing CC sequences and controls (see table 1). The participants were asked to transcribe each stimulus they heard in Pinyin, including tones. Different types of transcription errors (e.g. epenthesis, metathesis) were observed and analyzed statistically. In this abstract I report only the general result, and I focus on the transcription of tones. The most frequent transcription included vowel epenthesis in the clusters. The illusory vowel is always perceived as short central [ɤ] (akta->akɤta), except after a labial (ipta->iputa). In the controls, the vowel /a/ between clusters is perceived as /a/ when it precedes a stressed syllable (katápa). When it follows a stressed syllable (ákata), it is perceived as central /ɤ/. This response reflects the fact that in Russian, an unstressed vowel preceding stress is less reduced than an unstressed vowel elsewhere in the word [3]. Thus, Mandarin listeners can still perceive a moderately reduced [a] in pre-tonic position, but report a fully reduced vowel in post-tonic position. Of the 24 participants, only 8 could transcribe tones. This is because Pinyin transcription, though commonly used, rarely includes tones. Moreover, the participants do not have more than high school education and do not write regularly. The results of the 8 speakers are summarized and discussed below. Word position and position with respect to stress. In the Russian stimuli, the stressed syllable is realized with an F0 peak. The listeners' responses thus correspond to the low F0 in the pre-stressed syllable, and to the falling F0 on the post-stressed syllable, respectively (fig. 1). Vowel quality. Overall, vowel quality, whether of illusory vowels or of real vowels, does not influence the perception of illusory tones (p>0.05). Consonant type. There is a significant difference of tone perception in relation to phonotactics in initial, pre-stressed clusters. Listeners reported high tone on the illusory vowel significantly more often in stop-stop (e.g., ktápa) than in stop-nasal clusters (p0.05), on a real vowel. In the clusters, where no vowel is actually produced, the audible F0 movement is very fast, rising toward the peak of the stressed vowel. The start of the F0 rise is influenced by the consonant type [4]: after a voiceless stop F0 rises in the following vowel, while after a sonorant stop F0 falls. In the controls (katápa), F0 starts low on the unstressed vowel, and rises into the following stressed syllable. The participants seem to respond to this systematic rise, rather than to the subtler effects of consonant-type.

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    Authors: E. Messaritaki; Stavros I. Dimitriadis; Derek K. Jones;

    Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a data-driven algorithm to define the graph topology. The test-retest data of the Human Connectome Project were used to compare the reproducibility of the graphs and their various attributes (edges, topologies, graph theoretical metrics) derived through those schemes, for diffusion images acquired with three different diffusion weightings. The impact of the scheme on the statistical power of the study and on the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention was also calculated. The reproducibility of the graphs and their attributes depended heavily on the graph construction scheme. Graph reproducibility was higher for schemes that used thresholding to define the graph topology, while data-driven schemes performed better at topology reproducibility (mean similarities of 0.962 and 0.984 respectively, for graphs derived from diffusion images with b=2000 s/mm2). Additionally, schemes that used thresholding resulted in better reproducibility for local graph theoretical metrics (intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of the order of 0.8), compared to data-driven schemes. Thresholded and data-driven schemes resulted in high (0.86 or higher) ICCs only for schemes that use exclusively the number of streamlines to construct the graphs. Crucially, the number of participants required to detect a difference between populations or an effect of an intervention could change by a factor of two or more depending on the scheme used, affecting the power of studies to reveal the effects of interest. Highlights • The reproducibility of graphs depends on the graph-construction scheme. • The reproducibility of graph theoretical metrics also depends on the scheme used. • The reproducibility of edge weights depends on the graph-construction scheme. • Structural network graphs are fairly consistent across diffusion weightings.

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  • Authors: A, Cummings; J, Chataway;

    Multiple sclerosis, always challenging, hands down a particular gauntlet with the concept of the radiologically isolated syndrome. This article discusses what it is, recent developments in the field and how these patients should be managed.

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