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  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2014-2023
  • 10. No inequality

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Elena, Choleris; Liisa A M, Galea; Farida, Sohrabji; Karyn M, Frick;

    Abstract Biological differences between males and females are found at multiple levels. However, females have too often been under-represented in behavioral neuroscience research, which has stymied the study of potential sex differences in neurobiology and behavior. This review focuses on the study of sex differences in the neurobiology of social behavior, memory, emotions, and recovery from brain injury, with particular emphasis on the role of estrogens in regulating forebrain function. This work, presented by the authors at the 2016 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society, emphasizes varying approaches from several mammalian species in which sex differences have not only been documented, but also become the focus of efforts to understand the mechanistic basis underlying them. This information may provide readers with useful experimental tools to successfully address recently introduced regulations by granting agencies that either require (e.g. the National Institutes of Health in the United States and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in Canada) or recommend (e.g. Horizon 2020 in Europe) the inclusion of both sexes in biomedical research.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Neuroscience & Biobe...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2018
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Zito, Giuseppe A.; Wiest, Roland; Aybek, Selma;

    The sense of agency (SoA) refers to the perception that an action is the consequence of one's own intention. Studies exploring the SoA with neuroimaging techniques summarized the available data and confirmed a role of fronto-parietal areas and subcortical structures. However, these studies focused on specific regions of interest. We thus conducted a whole-brain meta-analysis to verify which regions emerge as significant for the SoA, specifically during motor execution. We performed a systematic search on PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases with the following inclusion criteria: studies investigating SoA with a visuo-motor task by means of neuroimaging in healthy subjects. We performed a quantitative, whole-brain, meta-analysis of neural correlates of the SoA based on the activation likelihood estimation. Of the 785 articles identified by our search, 22 studies met our inclusion criteria (169 foci, 295 subjects for decreased agency, and 58 foci, 165 subjects for normal agency). Neural correlates of decreased agency were the bilateral temporo-parietal junction (MNI: 50,-54,14; -44,-52,42; -48,-56,8). Normal agency showed no significant clusters of activation. This meta-analysis confirmed the key role of areas responsible for decreased SoA during motor control, whereas normal agency did not show a specific neural signature. This study sets the ground for future regions-of-interest analyses of neural correlates of SoA, as well as potential neuromodulation studies, which might be relevant in medical conditions presenting with abnormal SoA.

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
    Other literature type . 2020
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2020
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      https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
      Other literature type . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Matsushita, Futoshi; Kida, Hirotaka; Tabei, Ken‐ichi; Nakano, Chizuru; +8 Authors

    AbstractIntroductionThis study aims to investigate the association between the presence and frequency of cortical lesions (CLs), and the clinical and psychological features of multiple sclerosis (MS).MethodsA total of 19 patients with MS were examined using double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into two groups: CL and non‐CL. In‐house software was used to quantitatively determine the atrophy of each brain region. Activities of daily living (ADL) were estimated using the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Cognitive function was assessed using the following tests: Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test (TMT), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Z‐scores were used to assess significant differences in the neuropsychological test outcomes between the groups.ResultsSix of 19 patients had subcortical and deep WM lesions (non‐CL group; diagnosed with relapsing–remitting MS). Thirteen of 19 patients had both subcortical and cortical lesions (CL group; 9—relapsing–remitting MS; 4—primary/secondary progressive MS). There were no significant differences in age, education, and disease duration, but EDSS scores were significantly higher in the CL group compared to the non‐CL group. There were no significant differences in gray and white matter volume between the CL and the non‐CL groups, but the white matter lesion volume was significantly higher in the CL group compared to the non‐CL group. Neuropsychological tests showed significant performance worsening in the CL group as compared to the standard values for healthy individuals in their age group, especially in the TMT data.ConclusionsProgressive MS, which was associated with decreased physical functioning, ADL, and cognitive impairment, was found in patients in the CL group.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Brain and Behavior
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Brain and Behavior
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Brain and Behavior
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Brain and Behavior
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    Authors: Patricia M, Gough; Emily L, Connally; Peter, Howell; David, Ward; +2 Authors

    Purpose Previous studies have reported that the planum temporale – a language-related structure that normally shows a leftward asymmetry – had reduced asymmetry in people who stutter (PWS) and reversed asymmetry in those with severe stuttering. These findings are consistent with the theory that altered language lateralization may be a cause or consequence of stuttering. Here, we re-examined these findings in a larger sample of PWS. Methods We evaluated planum temporale asymmetry in structural MRI scans obtained from 67 PWS and 63 age-matched controls using: 1) manual measurements of the surface area; 2) voxel-based morphometry to automatically calculate grey matter density. We examined the influences of gender, age, and stuttering severity on planum temporale asymmetry. Results The size of the planum temporale and its asymmetry were not different in PWS compared with Controls using either the manual or the automated method. Both groups showed a significant leftwards asymmetry on average (about one-third of PWS and Controls showed rightward asymmetry). Importantly, and contrary to previous reports, the degree of asymmetry was not related to stuttering severity. In the manual measurements, women who stutter had a tendency towards rightwards asymmetry but men who stutter showed the same degree of leftwards asymmetry as male Controls. In the automated measurements, Controls showed a significant increase in leftwards asymmetry with age but this relationship was not observed in PWS. Conclusions We conclude that reduced planum temporale asymmetry is not a prominent feature of the brain in PWS and that the asymmetry is unrelated to stuttering severity. Highlights • Planum temporale asymmetry was compared in 67 people who stutter and 63 age-matched controls. • Size or asymmetry of the planum temporale did not differ between people who stutter and controls. • The asymmetry of the planum temporale was not affected by stuttering severity. • Differences in asymmetry of the planum temporale are not a cause, consequence or correlate of developmental stuttering.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Oxford University Research Archive
    Other literature type . 2017
    License: CC BY
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    Journal of Fluency Disorders
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Oxford University Research Archive
      Other literature type . 2017
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      Journal of Fluency Disorders
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Kastoryano, Riva; Schader, Miriam;

    This article reviews approaches to ethnicity and political engagement, with particular emphasis on Western Europe. It argues that studies were at first marked by a structuralist approach and later turned to a more culturalist understanding of ethnic mobilization. Also, owing to increased labor migration after World War II, researchers shifted their attention from ethnic separatism to the ethnic identifications and mobilizations of migrants. While the political mobilization around (or based on) ethnicity was long seen as a disruptive factor within states, then also as a resource or barrier for migrant political involvement within national contexts, it is now studied under the auspices of increasing transnationalism, too. Simultaneously, religion, and especially Islam (in the European context), has come to be seen as one of the most important markers of identity and difference in European societies. This article's theoretical reflections concentrate on the juxtaposition of these two developments—increasing transnationalism and the (re)emergence of religion as a relevant boundary marker. To analyze these shifts, the article contrasts three theoretical approaches with regard to ethnicity: theories of integration, resource mobilization theory, and the political opportunity structures approach. It suggests the revision of the traditional understanding of integration as nationally bounded, and it highlights the need for new perspectives for the study of ethnicity and political participation in the context of globalization.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao SPIRE - Sciences Po ...arrow_drop_down
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    Annual Review of Sociology
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Fonte, David; Le Laurain, Solveig;

    Suite à la nouvelle loi française pénalisant le harcèlement de rue, plusieurs auteur•rices ont souligné le risque de stigmatiser les jeunes hommes racisés tout en occultant la dimension structurelle des violences sexistes. La littérature sociologique sur la racialisation du sexisme invite à penser que cette loi est susceptible de résonner avec un imaginaire partagé sur le sexisme des banlieues. Notre objectif visait à statuer sur cette question. En nous appuyant sur l’approche des représentations sociales, nous avons analysé les processus d’objectivation et d’ancrage en jeu dans la construction du harceleur masculin. Une première étude (N = 120) utilisant la technique de substitution nous a permis de voir que le harceleur masculin s’objective à partir d’images qui se réfèrent aux « jeunes de banlieue ». Les résultats suggèrent l’existence de stratégies de masquage d’opinions contre-normatives à travers l’utilisation de références implicites plutôt qu’explicites. Les images explicites et implicites ont ensuite été utilisées dans une seconde étude pour mesurer la racialisation du harceleur masculin (N = 204). Les résultats montrent que la racialisation du harceleur à partir de la figure du « jeune de banlieue » s’ancre dans un système de pensée légitimant un ordre social raciste et sexiste. Notre travail discute finalement le risque de stigmatisation des jeunes hommes racisés dans le contexte de la loi pénalisant le harcèlement de rue.

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    Les cahiers internationaux de psychologie sociale
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Kratou, Hajer; Goaied, Mohamed;

    ABSTRACTThe standard Hecksher-Ohlin-Samuelson framework claimed that foreign trade benefits developing countries, but many empirical studies suggest otherwise. After analyzing data on income deciles from the World Income Distribution Database for 66 developing countries, we found that trade openness benefits underprivileged people in affluent countries but not in developing countries. Also, external financial flows and democracy in conjunction do not exert significant effects, suggesting that these variables might affect income distribution through different channels. Finally, we reinforce the Kuznets inverted-U hypothesis; namely, the presence of an economic development threshold beyond which low-income deciles would increase.

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    Authors: Willemijn J. Jansen; Rik Ossenkoppele; Betty M. Tijms; Anne M. Fagan; +115 Authors

    Contains fulltext : 190311.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Closed access) Importance: Cerebral amyloid-beta aggregation is an early event in Alzheimer disease (AD). Understanding the association between amyloid aggregation and cognitive manifestation in persons without dementia is important for a better understanding of the course of AD and for the design of prevention trials. Objective: To investigate whether amyloid-beta aggregation is associated with cognitive functioning in persons without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 2908 participants with normal cognition and 4133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from 53 studies in the multicenter Amyloid Biomarker Study. Normal cognition was defined as having no cognitive concerns for which medical help was sought and scores within the normal range on cognitive tests. Mild cognitive impairment was diagnosed according to published criteria. Study inclusion began in 2013 and is ongoing. Data analysis was performed in January 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Global cognitive performance as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and episodic memory performance as assessed by a verbal word learning test. Amyloid aggregation was measured with positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and dichotomized as negative (normal) or positive (abnormal) according to study-specific cutoffs. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between amyloid aggregation and low cognitive scores (MMSE score

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    JAMA Psychiatry
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    Europe PubMed Central
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    JAMA Psychiatry
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    Authors: Peyman Hosseinzadeh Kassani; Li Xiao; Gemeng Zhang; Julia M. Stephen; +3 Authors

    Human brain development is a complex and dynamic process that is affected by several factors such as genetics, sex hormones, and environmental changes. A number of recent studies on brain development have examined functional connectivity (FC) defined by the temporal correlation between time series of different brain regions. We propose to add the directional flow of information during brain maturation. To do so, we extract effective connectivity (EC) through Granger causality (GC) for two different groups of subjects, i.e., children and young adults. The motivation is that the inclusion of causal interaction may further discriminate brain connections between two age groups and help to discover new connections between brain regions. The contributions of this study are threefold. First, there has been a lack of attention to EC-based feature extraction in the context of brain development. To this end, we propose a new kernel-based GC (KGC) method to learn nonlinearity of complex brain network, where a reduced Sine hyperbolic polynomial (RSP) neural network was used as our proposed learner. Second, we used causality values as the weight for the directional connectivity between brain regions. Our findings indicated that the strength of connections was significantly higher in young adults relative to children. In addition, our new EC-based feature outperformed FC-based analysis from Philadelphia neurocohort (PNC) study with better discrimination of the different age groups. Moreover, the fusion of these two sets of features (FC + EC) improved brain age prediction accuracy by more than 4%, indicating that they should be used together for brain development studies. Comment: 10 pages

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    IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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    Authors: Burgorgue-Larsen, Laurence;

    Despite the fact that Solidarity is part of the Values enshrined in the primary law of the EU (article 2 TEU and Preamble of the Charter of Fundamental Rights) as well as in some important piece of legislation concerning the Asylum policy (articles 67§2 and 80 TFEU), the European Union, facing important migration flux, has preferred to give importance to security instead of liberty. The EU is tackling the migration crisis without any bold vision in the long run and undermines the legitimacy of the European project, and, beyond, its own existence as a political space where Human rights are key.

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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Elena, Choleris; Liisa A M, Galea; Farida, Sohrabji; Karyn M, Frick;

    Abstract Biological differences between males and females are found at multiple levels. However, females have too often been under-represented in behavioral neuroscience research, which has stymied the study of potential sex differences in neurobiology and behavior. This review focuses on the study of sex differences in the neurobiology of social behavior, memory, emotions, and recovery from brain injury, with particular emphasis on the role of estrogens in regulating forebrain function. This work, presented by the authors at the 2016 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society, emphasizes varying approaches from several mammalian species in which sex differences have not only been documented, but also become the focus of efforts to understand the mechanistic basis underlying them. This information may provide readers with useful experimental tools to successfully address recently introduced regulations by granting agencies that either require (e.g. the National Institutes of Health in the United States and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in Canada) or recommend (e.g. Horizon 2020 in Europe) the inclusion of both sexes in biomedical research.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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