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  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2014-2023
  • 13. Climate action

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mathieu Santonja; Adriane Aupic-Samain; Estelle Forey; Matthieu Chauvat;

    International audience; Collembola is an abundant group of soil organisms playing a major role on litter decomposition process and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Habitat structure strongly influences Collembola assemblages as plant litter physical characteristics and quantity provide structural niches and determine the outcome of their interactions with predators. Collembola are also extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as soil temperature that control their demographic parameters and activity. In this context, increasing temperature with the ongoing climate change can have strong impact on Collembola assemblages and their responses to predation either directly by altering their behaviour or indirectly by altering their habitat structure. We therefore examined how the increase of temperature combined to the decrease of specific leaf area (SLA, a major functional plant trait) of the European common oak (Quercus robur L.) and the presence of a centipede predator (Chilopoda Lithobiidae) will affect the abundance of Folsomia candida (Collembola Isotomidae) in a 5-week microcosm experiment. Increasing temperature, decreasing SLA and presence of centipede altered F. candida abundance. We observed a significant temperature × predation interaction suggesting differential effects of increasing temperature on F. candida abundance with and without predator. We also observed a significant SLA × predation interaction highlighting that lower SLA decreases F. candida abundance only in predator presence. Finally, our findings evidenced that increasing temperature and decreasing SLA amplify the negative effect of centipede predation on F. candida abundance, suggesting that both direct and indirect effects of climate change would conjointly strengthen the top-down control of predators on preys.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ European Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    European Journal of Soil Biology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Article . 2018
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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2018
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    Authors: Morau, Dominique; RAKOTONDRAMIARANA, Hery; RANAIVOARISOA, Tojo; ANDRIAMAMONJY, Ando;

    International audience; A green roof is an option for improving a building thermal comfort. The investigation is here performed within the specific climate context of Reunion Island in south hemisphere. This type of roof system involves choice difficulties for plant species that are more favorable to establish that comfort. The objective of this work is to simulate the dynamic behavior of this system towards external requests in wet tropical zones and vis-à-vis influences of certain number of physical parameters related to this system. As long as possible, authors used the electrical analogy method to establish a mathematical model associated to the studied system. Based on this model, a Matlab computing code was finalized. Weather data of Reunion Island were used for simulations; the green roof potential and benefit were highlighted by surveying the temperature gain and the heat flux crossing the roof as well as the energy saving performance. Furthermore, the energy consumption being surveyed while doing sensitivity analysis with Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test method, the most influential parameters of the model were identified. Full scale experimental results are provided and consisting in monitoring green roof on the top of a public building. According to the results, we can assert that the green roof decreases heat flux entering through the roof during the day and restrains the restoration of accumulated heat at night. Indeed, the support on which the plantation ground bases affects the building thermal insulation. The experimental data are also conducted to prove the effectiveness of thermal insulation by green roofs in reducing temperature in the building between 5°C and 7°C in relation to plants type and the canopy Leaf Area Index (LAI). A comparison of experimental values and model results is done. Among other uses, this code can be used as a tool for choosing the plants and the drain materials to be experimented on the green roof. The results offer hints to optimize the design and thermal performance of extensive green roofs.

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    Energy Procedia
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Conference object . 2013
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marie-Elodie Perga; Stephen C. Maberly; Jean-Philippe Jenny; Benjamin Alric; +2 Authors

    AbstractNow that evasion of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters is accounted for in global carbon models, it is crucial to quantify how these fluxes have changed in the past and forecast how they may alter in the future in response to local and global change. Here we developed a sediment proxy for the concentration of summer surface dissolved CO2 concentration and used it to reconstruct changes over the past 150 years for three large lakes that have been affected by climate warming, changes in nutrient load, and detrital terrigenous supplies. Initially CO2 neutral to the atmosphere, all three lakes subsequently fluctuated between near equilibrium and supersaturation. Although catchment inputs have supplied CO2 to the lakes, internal processes and reallocation have ultimately regulated decadal changes in lake surface CO2 concentration. Nutrient concentration has been the dominant driver of CO2 variability for a century although the reproducible, nonmonotonic relationship of CO2 to nutrient concentration suggests an interplay between metabolic and chemical processes. Yet for two of these lakes, climatic control of CO2 concentrations has been important over the last 30 years, promoting higher surface CO2 concentrations, likely by decreasing hypolimnetic carbon storage. This new approach offers the unique opportunity to scale, a posteriori, the long‐term impact of human activities on lake CO2.

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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    ZENODO
    Other literature type . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Global Biogeochemical Cycles
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sassine, Nahia; Donze, Frédéric-Victor; Bruch, Arnaud; Harthong, Barthelemy;

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems are central elements of various types of power plants operated using renewable energy sources. Packed bed TES can be considered as a cost–effective solution in concentrated solar power plants (CSP). Such a device is made up of a tank filled with a granular bed through which heat-transfer fluid circulates. However, in such devices, the thermal stresses may accumulate from cycle to another due to differential thermal dilatation between filler and tank walls, leading to plastic deformations in the tank shell and the failure of the tank might happen. This paper aims at studying the evolution of tank wall stresses over granular bed thermal cycles, taking into account both thermal and mechanical loads, with a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM). Simulations were performed to study two different thermal configurations: (i) the tank is heated homogenously along its height or (ii) with a vertical gradient of temperature. Then, the resulting loading stresses applied on the tank are compared as well the response of the internal granular material.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://aip.scitatio...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5067...
    Conference object . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://aip.scitatio...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . Conference object . 2018
      https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5067...
      Conference object . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Biagi, P.F.; Al-Haddad, E.; Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; +7 Authors

    International audience; We analyse the flux density variation associated to low frequency (LF) broadcasting transmitters observed by the ICE electric field experiment onboard DEMETER micro-satellite, observed from 01st Jan. to 09th Dec. 2010. We select five stations localised around the Mediterranean and the Black seas: Tipaza (252 kHz, 02°28’E, 36°33’N, Algeria), Roumoules (216 kHz, 06°08’E, 43°47’N, Monte Carlo), Polatli (180 kHz, 32°25’E, 39°45’N, Turkey), Nadour (171 kHz, 02°55’W, 35°02’N, Morocco) and Brasov (153 kHz, 25°36’E,45°40’, Romania). The detection of the LF transmitter signals by DEMETER micro-satellite is found to depend on the radiated power, the emitted frequency, and the orbit paths with regard to the location of the stations. This leads us to characterise the reception condition of the LF signals and to define time intervals where the detection probability is high. We show that LF signal are regularly recorded, each 12 days, when the satellite is above the broadcasting station. The signal intensity levels are principally significant during the solar activity. Hence we find that the solar and the geomagnetic activities are slightly correlated to the maxima of LF signal as recorded by DEMETER. Also we note a drop of the intensity level several days before the occurrence of earthquakes in/around the Mediterranean and Black seas.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Physics and Chemistr...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Parts A/B/C
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2014
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    Article . 2017
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J. B. Vielfaure; S. D. Vergani; J. Japelj; Johan P. U. Fynbo; +22 Authors

    Context. The identification of the sources that reionized the Universe and their specific contribution to this process are key missing pieces of our knowledge of the early Universe. Faint star-forming galaxies may be the main contributors to the ionizing photon budget during the epoch of reionization, but their escaping photons cannot be detected directly due to inter-galactic medium opacity. Hence, it is essential to characterize the properties of faint galaxies with significant Lyman continuum (LyC) photon leakage up to z ∼ 4 to define indirect indicators allowing analogs to be found at the highest redshift. Aims. Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) typically explode in star-forming regions of faint, star-forming galaxies. Through LGRB afterglow spectroscopy it is possible to detect directly LyC photons. Our aim is to use LGRBs as tools to study LyC leakage from faint, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Methods. Here we present the observations of LyC emission in the afterglow spectra of GRB 191004B at z = 3.5055, together with those of the other two previously known LyC-leaking LGRB host galaxies (GRB 050908 at z = 3.3467, and GRB 060607A at z = 3.0749), to determine their LyC escape fraction and compare their properties. Results. From the afterglow spectrum of GRB 191004B we determine a neutral hydrogen column density at the LGRB redshift of log(NH I/cm−2) = 17.2 ± 0.15, and negligible extinction (AV = 0.03 ± 0.02 mag). The only metal absorption lines detected are C IV and Si IV. In contrast to GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A, the host galaxy of GRB 191004B displays significant Lyman-alpha (Lyα) emission. From its Lyα emission and the non-detection of Balmer emission lines we constrain its star-formation rate (SFR) to 1 ≤ SFR ≤ 4.7 M⊙ yr−1. We fit the Lyα emission with a shell model and find parameters values consistent with the observed ones. The absolute (relative) LyC escape fractions we find for GRB 191004B, GRB 050908 and GRB 060607A are of 0.35−0.11+0.10 (0.43−0.13+0.12), 0.08−0.04+0.05 (0.08−0.04+0.05) and 0.20−0.05+0.05 (0.45−0.15+0.15), respectively. We compare the LyC escape fraction of LGRBs to the values of other LyC emitters found from the literature, showing that LGRB afterglows can be powerful tools to study LyC escape for faint high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Indeed we could push LyC leakage studies to much higher absolute magnitudes. The host galaxies of the three LGRBs presented here have all M1600 > −19.5 mag, with the GRB 060607A host at M1600 > −16 mag. LGRB hosts may therefore be particularly suitable for exploring the ionizing escape fraction in galaxies that are too faint or distant for conventional techniques. Furthermore, the time involved is minimal compared to galaxy studies. © J.-B. Vielfaure et al. 2020 This work is part of the BEaPro project (PI: S.D. Vergani) funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-16-CE31-0003). We thank Giancarlo Ghirlanda for providing useful information. JBV and SDV thank Anne Verhamme for useful discussions. SDV acknowledges financial support from the French Space Agency (CNES). MG was supported by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51409 and acknowledges support from HST grants HST-GO-15643.017-A, HST-AR-15039.003-A, and XSEDE grant TG-AST180036. The Cosmic DAWN center is funded by the DNRF. JPUF thanks the Carlsberg foundation for support. DBM acknowledges support from VILLUM FONDEN research grant 19054. NRT acknowledges support from STFC via grant ST/N000757/1. DAK acknowledges support from Spanish research project RTI2018-098104-J-I00 (GRBPhot). The PanSTARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project O ffice, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium).Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. The NumPy (van der Walt et al. 2011), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020) and matplotlib (Hunter 2007) packages have been extensively used for the preparation and presentation of this work. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Peer reviewed

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    NARCIS
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2020
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Opin visindi
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Marija, Mrdaković; Larisa, Ilijin; Milena, Vlahović; Dragana, Matić; +3 Authors

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may affect biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms, thus impairing fitness related traits and influencing their populations. This imposes the need for providing early-warning signals of pollution. Our study aimed to examine changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the concentration of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) in homogenates of brain tissues of fifth instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, exposed to the ubiquitous PAH, fluoranthene, supplemented to the rearing diet. Significantly increased activity of AChE in larvae fed on the diets with high fluoranthene concentrations suggests the necessity for elucidation of the role of AChE in these insects when exposed to PAH pollution. Significant induction of Hsp70 in gypsy moth larvae reared on the diets containing low fluoranthene concentrations, indicate that changes in the level of Hsp70 might be useful as an indicator of pollution in this widespread forest species.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Chemospherearrow_drop_down
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    Chemosphere
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Chemosphere
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nicol, Edith; Xu, Yao; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Kinani, Said; +2 Authors

    RationaleHigh‐resolution mass spectrometry based non‐targeted screening has a huge potential for applications in environmental sciences, engineering and regulation. However, it produces large datasets for which full appropriate processing is a real challenge; the development of processing software is the last building‐block to enable large‐scale use of this approach.MethodsA new software application, SPIX, has been developed to extract relevant information from high‐resolution mass spectral datasets. Dealing with intrinsic sample variability and reducing operator subjectivity, it opens up opportunities and promising prospects in many areas of analytical chemistry. SPIX is freely available at: http://spix.webpopix.org.ResultsTwo features of the software are presented in the field of environmental analysis. An example illustrates how SPIX reveals photodegradation reactions in wastewater by fitting kinetic models to significant changes in ion abundance over time. A second example shows the ability of SPIX to detect photoproducts at trace amounts in river water, through comparison of datasets from samples taken before and after irradiation.ConclusionsSPIX has shown its ability to reveal relevant modifications between two series of large datasets, allowing, for instance, the study of the consequences of a given event on a complex substrate. Most of all – and it is to our knowledge the only software currently available allowing this – it can reveal and monitor any kind of reaction in all types of mixture.

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    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
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  • Authors: Baby, Guillaume; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Dall’asta, Massimo;

    International audience; The South African (Kalahari) Plateau is the world’s largest non-orogenic plateau. It forms a largescaletopographic anomaly (×1000 km) which rises from sea level to > 1000 m. Most mechanisms proposed toexplain its elevation gain imply mantle processes. The age of the uplift and the different steps of relief growthare still debated. On one hand, a Late Cretaceous uplift is supported both by thermochronological studies andsedimentary flux quantifications. On the other hand, geomorphological studies suggest a Late Cenozoic upliftscenario.Onshore, on the mapping and chronology of all the macroforms (weathering surfaces and associatedalterites, pediments and pediplains, incised rivers, wave-cut platforms) dated by intersection with the fewpreserved sediments and the volcanics (mainly kimberlites pipes).Offshore, on a more classical dataset of seismic lines and petroleum wells, coupled with biostratigraphicrevaluations (characterization and dating of vertical movements of the marginssediment volumemeasurement).The main result of this study is that the South African Plateau is an old Upper Cretaceous relief (90-70Ma) reactivated during Oligocene (30-15 Ma) times. Its evolution can be summarized as follows:• 100-70 Ma (Cenomanian to Campanian): low elevation plateau (0-500 m) with older and higher reliefslocated along the Indian side, acting as a main divide between the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans. First upliftoccurred in the east at ~92 Ma, with a fast flexuration of the Indian margins. This initiates a paroxysm of theerosion (90-80 Ma) with the growth of a large delta along the Atlantic margin (Orange delta). Deformationmigrated progressively westward and resulted on the growth of the Atlantic marginal bulge between 81 and70 Ma. Most of the present-day relief was probably created at this time. This is supported by the decrease ofthe sedimentary flux which suggests a reorganisation of the interior drainage pattern.• 70-30 Ma (Uppermost Cretaceous-Paleogene): most of the relief is fossilized and weathered relativetectonic quiescence.• 30-15 Ma (Oligocene-Early Miocene): second period of the South African Plateau uplift. Most of thedeformation took place along the Indian side of the Plateau (strike flexure) feeding the Zambezi, Limpopo andTugela deltas.• Since at least Middle Miocene times, all those reliefs have been fossilized, with very low erosion rates(x1m/Ma), in response to the major aridification of southern Africa.

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    Authors: Guillaume, Benjamin; Pochat , Stéphane; Monteux, Julien; Husson, Laurent; +1 Authors

    International audience; To the first order, eustatic charts are in accord with our understanding of the geodynamic processes that controlsea level. By extrapolation, second-order features are also thought to obey to the same rules, and are thus oftentaken for granted. But this assumption may be jeopardized by a close examination of a characteristic example.The Permo-Triassic period is characteristic for both its purported eustatic signal and its geodynamic and climaticsetting are well defined and contrasted. Both the fragmentation of the Pangean supercontinent and the late Paleozoicmelting of ice sheets argue for a rise of the eustatic sea level (ESL) whereas eustatic charts show the opposite. Herewe review the possible mechanisms that could explain the apparent sea level low, and find that some of them dolower the ESL while others instead only modify the referential, either uplifting continents or tilting the marginswhere the control points are located. In the first category, we find that (i) dynamic deflections of the Earth surfaceabove subduction zones and their location with respect to continents primarily control absolute sea level while thePangean supercontinent forms and breaks up, (ii) endorheism that ubiquitously developed at the time of Pangeanaggregation also contributed to lowering the ESL by storing water out of the oceanic reservoir. In the secondcategory, we show that (i) the thermal uplift associated to supercontinental insulation and (ii) the dynamic upliftassociated with the emplacement of a superplume both give rates of change in the range of long-term changesof ESL. We also show that (iii) the dynamic tilting of continental margins not only produces apparent sea levelchanges, but also modifies the absolute sea level, which in turn may end up in the paradoxical situation whereinfingerprints of ESL drop are found in the geological record whereas ESL is actually rising. We conclude that theestablishment of second to third order absolute sea level changes may stay for a while a chimera.

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    Lithosphere
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    Lithosphere
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mathieu Santonja; Adriane Aupic-Samain; Estelle Forey; Matthieu Chauvat;

    International audience; Collembola is an abundant group of soil organisms playing a major role on litter decomposition process and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Habitat structure strongly influences Collembola assemblages as plant litter physical characteristics and quantity provide structural niches and determine the outcome of their interactions with predators. Collembola are also extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as soil temperature that control their demographic parameters and activity. In this context, increasing temperature with the ongoing climate change can have strong impact on Collembola assemblages and their responses to predation either directly by altering their behaviour or indirectly by altering their habitat structure. We therefore examined how the increase of temperature combined to the decrease of specific leaf area (SLA, a major functional plant trait) of the European common oak (Quercus robur L.) and the presence of a centipede predator (Chilopoda Lithobiidae) will affect the abundance of Folsomia candida (Collembola Isotomidae) in a 5-week microcosm experiment. Increasing temperature, decreasing SLA and presence of centipede altered F. candida abundance. We observed a significant temperature × predation interaction suggesting differential effects of increasing temperature on F. candida abundance with and without predator. We also observed a significant SLA × predation interaction highlighting that lower SLA decreases F. candida abundance only in predator presence. Finally, our findings evidenced that increasing temperature and decreasing SLA amplify the negative effect of centipede predation on F. candida abundance, suggesting that both direct and indirect effects of climate change would conjointly strengthen the top-down control of predators on preys.

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    European Journal of Soil Biology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2018
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