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  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2014-2023
  • 16. Peace & justice

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Saki, Mohamed;

    International audience; The aim of this article is to show how rhetoric and critical thinking are intrinsically interrelated. I will explain why, in keeping with the history of the discipline itself, rhetoric can be a powerful tool for critical literacy. It can help raise our awareness of how social, political, ethical issues are always rhetorically constructed and why they are always the outcome of arbitration about the right linguistic and rhetorical choices to make in particular rhetorical situations. One of the basic epistemological tenets of this article is that, instead of confining ourselves to a single rhetorical theory, we can choose among the huge rhetorical heritage at our disposal to elaborate a coherent analytical framework to investigate the message conveyed by a text, be it oral, written, visual, or one that combines these three modes. In this article,I have drawn from Chaïm Perelman’s New Rhetoric and Kenneth Burke’s Dramatism to analyze a multi-semiotic document.

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    Deeds and Days
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Auel, Katrin; Rozenberg, Olivier; Tacea, Angela;

    There is an on-going debate in the literature as to whether national parliaments can and do play an active role in EU policy-making. The main reason for persistent disagreement is the lack of comparative empirical data on parliamentary behaviour in EU affairs. The article aims to contribute to this debate by presenting the first comparative quantitative data on European affairs activities of national parliaments and by explaining the empirical variation. The development of a unique dataset including all 27 national parliaments allows a series of explanatory variables to be tested for the level of parliamentary activity at both the committee and the plenary levels. The analysis shows that institutional strength in EU affairs plays an important role. Overall, however, EU activities can be better explained with a mix of institutional capacities and motivational incentives. The specific combinations vary for different types of activities.

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    West European Politics
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Guerra, Tristan; Gonthier, Frédéric; Alexandre, Chloé;

    Abstract There has been much speculation as to how to interpret the Yellow Vest movement in France. Building on a survey of more than 5,000 Yellow Vests, this research report argues that producerism is key to make sense of the protesters’ populist attitudes and relationship to politics.

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    Authors: Proeschel, Claude;

    The article by Matthias Busch and Nancy Morys ‘“Mobilising for the Values of the Republic” - France's Education Policy Response to the “Fragmented Society”: A Commented Press Review’ is dedicated to the recent debates on moral education in France. The study by Busch and Morys is based on a review of official texts, including educational policy documents, scientific and journalistic articles, interviews, statements of teachers and experts. This methodological approach considers a variety of arguments in the debate and highlights the key points which relate more broadly to the role of secular schools in the ideology of the French Republic on social integration. Our aim here is to provide a non-exhaustive historical perspective in the aim of better understanding the significance of these very topical issues. JSSE - Journal of Social Science Education, 2-2017: Beyond Description: Civic and Political Education in Europe – Dialogue and Comparison

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    Journal of Social Science Education
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY SA
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    https://doi.org/10.4119/jsse-8...
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY SA
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    https://doi.org/10.4119/unibi/...
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY SA
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  • Authors: Droz-Vincent, Philippe;

    Unlike the Tunisian and Egyptian uprisings in 2011, the Syrian Revolution has endured for more than three years. The uprising burst from the “peripheries” of the regime into an organized national movement, clinging at the beginning to the ideal of a nonviolent, nonsectarian upheaval aiming at a democratic Syria. Yet, the dynamics of contention between the regime and social movements have been re-shaped, leading to a return of violence with the risks of sectarian civil war looming.

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    Authors: Le Jan, Régine;

    Het huwelijk van Gisela, dochter van Louis de Vrome en Judith, met Eberhard, een lid van de machtige Unrochide dynastie en honorius van Frioel, in dienst van Lotharius I, maakt deel uit van de onderhandelingen om de keizerlijke successie te regelen, eind van de jaren 830. Zowel door zijn ongebruikelijke omvang, zijn fiscaal karakter en zijn geografische impact, werpt de bruidsschat die aan Gisela werd toegekend een duidelijk licht op de inzet van de competitie zowel op niveau van het rijk als in de naburige streken, tussen de jaren 830 en het einde van de negende eeuw. Zijn symbolische kracht kan beschouwd worden als de materiële hoeksteen van de band gecreëerd door het huwelijk van Eberhard en de dochter van de keizer. De bruidsschat werd vervolgens geïnstrumentaliseerd door vele acteurs : eerst en vooral het Eberhard – Gisela echtpaar zelf die het onder zijn jongere zonen verdeelde om aldus de oudste zoon het Italiaanse en Germaanse erfgoed over te laten, en die er ook, steunend op zijn belastingautoriteiten, een klooster mee stichtte toevertrouwd aan één van de zonen, de plaats waar Gisela de familie-memoria zou laten onderhouden naar het model van de koninginnen. Verder, door de Unrochiden die het niet nalieten via de bezittingen in het Frankische Rijk en Lotharingen om hun macht te verrijken. Door Karel de Kale, uiteindelijk, die de rechten op de belastingvoordelen behield, die ze in beslag nam en teruggaf naar gelang van zijn relaties met Eberhard en zijn groep. Het verder verloop van deze bezittingen, zowel lokaal als op keizerlijk vlak, toont aan dat de symbolische kracht ervan werd overwogen, leidde tot onderhandelingen en dat de componenten ervan werden gehiërarchiseerd. Toen Eberhard nog leefde nam het echtpaar het risico de bruidsschat te verliezen, of althans een deel ervan, om meer prestige en macht te verwerven bij Lodewijk ii in Italië. Omgekeerd, eenmaal weduwe, verkoos Gisela Italië, waar haar oudste zoon de plaats van de vader had ingenomen, te verlaten om haar bruidsschat in het Frankische Rijk opnieuw terug in handen te nemen, mits schijnonderdanigheid aan haar broeder en zijn keizerlijke ambities. De bruidsschatanalyse maakt het dus mogelijk, via verschillende invalshoeken, om Gisela in een meer globale context te benaderen ten gunste van de integriteit van haar persoonlijkheid, rekening gehouden met de verstreken tijd en het verloop van het leven van een vrouw onderworpen aan druk en aan de grillen van de politiek, maar die perfect bewust is van haar status en meer dan waarschijnlijk gefocust op haar eigen doelwitten. Le mariage de Gisèle, fille de Louis le Pieux et de Judith, avec Évrard, un membre du groupe puissant Unrochide et titulaire d’honores en Frioul au service de Lothaire Ier, s’inscrit dans le contexte des négociations devant régler la succession impériale, à la fin des années 830. Par son ampleur inhabituelle, son caractère fiscal, sa situation géographique, la dot qui fut accordée à Gisèle révèle les enjeux de la compétition qui s’est jouée à l’échelle de l’empire et dans les régions transfrontalières, entre les années 830 et la fin du ixe siècle. Sa puissance symbolique était le substrat matériel d’un lien créé par le mariage d’Évrard et de la fille de l’empereur. Elle a ensuite été instrumentalisée par de nombreux acteurs : par le couple Évrard – Gisèle qui l’a répartie entre ses fils cadets pour permettre à l’aîné de recevoir l’héritage italien et alémanique, et qui a aussi réussi à fonder sur un de ces fiscs un monastère, confié à l’un des fils, où Gisèle elle-même ferait entretenir la memoria familiale, sur le modèle des reines ; par le groupe unrochide qui n’a pas manqué de s’appuyer sur ces biens en Francie et en Lotharingie pour gagner en puissance ; par Charles le Chauve qui conservait des droits sur ces biens fiscaux, qui les a confisqués, restitués, au gré de ses relations avec Évrard et son groupe. Le devenir des biens, envisagé à l’échelle locale et à l’échelle impériale, montre que le champ symbolique était lui-même évalué, négocié, hiérarchisé, puisque, du vivant d’Évrard, le couple a finalement préféré prendre le risque de perdre tout ou partie de la dot pour gagner en prestige et puissance du côté de Louis ii en Italie. Mais à l’inverse, une fois veuve, Gisèle a choisi de quitter l’Italie, où son fils aîné avait pris la place du père, pour retrouver ses biens dotaux en Francie, au prix de sa soumission, au moins apparente, à son frère et à ses ambitions impériales. L’analyse de la dot permet ainsi, en faisant varier la focale, de réinsérer Gisèle dans le contexte global pour retrouver l’unité de sa personne, tout en laissant place au temps, au déroulement de la vie d’une femme, soumise aux aléas de la politique et aux pressions, mais parfaitement consciente de son statut et sans doute de ses objectifs. The marriage of Gisela, daughter of Louis the Pious and Judith, with Eberhard, a member of the powerful Unrochide dynasty and honorius of Friuli, faithful of Lothar i, is part of the negotiations to settle the imperial succession, at the end of the 830s. By its unusual size, its fiscal character, its geographical location, Gisela’s dowry reveals the stakes of the competition at the level of the empire and its borders, between the 830s and the end of the 9th century. Its symbolic power gave physical form to the bond created by the marriage of Eberhard and the daughter of the emperor. It was then exploited by many actors : first by the Eberhard – Gisela couple who divided it among his younger sons to allow the elder one to receive the Italian and Germanic heritage, and who also succeeded in founding on one of its fisci a monastery given to one of the sons, where Gisela herself would maintain the family memoria just as the Late Carolingian queens did ; by the Unrochide group relying on its possessions in Francia and Lothringia to gain power ; by Charles the Bald, who retained rights over these fisci, who confiscated and restored them according to his relations with Eberhard and his group. How these possessions were managed, both at the local and imperial scale, shows that the very symbolic aspect was valued, negotiated and even ranked with others, and during Eberhard’s lifetime, the couple ultimately took the risk of losing all or part of the dowry in order to increase its prestige and power with Louis ii of Italy. But conversely, once a widow, Gisela chose to leave Italy, where her eldest son had taken his father’s place, to recuperate her dowry in France, making submission to her brother and his imperial ambitions. By multiplying the approaches, the analysis of Gisela’s dowry makes it possible to envisage the emperor’s daughter in a more global context, describing her as a whole, varying in time and unfolding her life as a woman subject to pressure and to the vagaries of politics, but perfectly aware of her status and without doubt the objectives she set forth. Le Jan Régine. Quand l’empereur marie sa fille : la dot de Gisèle, fille de Louis le Pieux et de Judith, en son contexte. In: Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire, tome 96, fasc. 2, 2018. Histoire – Geschiedenis. pp. 597-612.

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    Revue belge de philologie et d histoire
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cowley, Benjamin Ultan;

    AbstractSustained attention plays an important role in everyday life, for work, learning, or when affected by attention disorders. Studies of the neural correlates of attention commonly treat sustained attention as an isolated construct, measured with computerized continuous performance tests. However, in any ecological context, sustained attention interacts with other executive functions and depends on lower level perceptual processing. Such interactions occur, for example, in inhibition of interference, and processing of complex hierarchical stimuli; both of which are important for successful ecological attention. Motivated by the need for more studies on neural correlates of higher cognition, I present an experiment to investigate these interactions of attention in 17 healthy participants measured with high-resolution electroencephalography. Participants perform a novel 2-alternative forced-choice computerised performance test, the Primed Subjective Illusory Contour Attention Task (PSICAT), which presents gestalt-stimuli targets with distractor primes to induce interference inhibition during complex-percept processing. Using behavioural and brain-imaging analyses, I demonstrate the novel result that task-irrelevant incongruency can evoke stronger behavioural and neural responses than the task-relevant stimulus condition; a potentially important finding in attention disorder research. PSICAT is available as an open-source code repository at the following url, allowing researchers to reuse and adapt it to their requirements. https://github.com/zenBen/Kanizsa_Prime/.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    Scientific Reports
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2018
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hilscher, Moritz; Tjabben, Hendrik; Rätz, Hendrik; Semmo, Amir; +3 Authors

    International audience; This paper presents a service-based approach towards content moderation of digital visual media while browsing web pages. It enables the automatic analysis and classification of possibly offensive content, such as images of violence, nudity, or surgery, and applies common image abstraction techniques at different levels of abstraction to these to lower their affective impact. The system is implemented using a microservice architecture that is accessible via a browser extension, which can be installed in most modern web browsers. It can be used to facilitate content moderation of digital visual media such as digital images or to enable parental control for child protection.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2021
    https://doi.org/10.20380/gi202...
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      Other literature type . 2021
      https://doi.org/10.20380/gi202...
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    Authors: Biswa Sengupta; Arturo Tozzi; Gerald K Cooray; Pamela K Douglas; +1 Authors

    Given the amount of knowledge and data accruing in the neurosciences, is it time to formulate a general principle for neuronal dynamics that holds at evolutionary, developmental, and perceptual timescales? In this paper, we propose that the brain (and other self-organised biological systems) can be characterised via the mathematical apparatus of a gauge theory. The picture that emerges from this approach suggests that any biological system (from a neuron to an organism) can be cast as resolving uncertainty about its external milieu, either by changing its internal states or its relationship to the environment. Using formal arguments, we show that a gauge theory for neuronal dynamics—based on approximate Bayesian inference—has the potential to shed new light on phenomena that have thus far eluded a formal description, such as attention and the link between action and perception. This Essay presents a formalism that not only provides a quantitative framework for modelling neural activity but also shows that neuronal dynamics across scales are described by the same principle.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    PLoS Biology
    Article . 2016
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    PLoS Biology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Tacea, Angela;

    The Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) touches upon two fundamental issues: on the one hand the national sovereignty and the State’s capacity to control and to manage its territory and its population, and on the other hand the protection of fundamental human rights and civil liberties. Thus, the balance between liberty and security is the core of the AFSJ. Scholars have argued that the lack of parliamentary accountability and control of home affairs policies has led to an insufficient standard of human protection. However, recent developments in this area bought by the treaty of Lisbon conferred to national parliaments a special role in AFSJ polices (Article 69, Title V of TFEU). They should ensure that legislative initiatives in relation to judicial cooperation in criminal matters and to police cooperation (Chaps. 4 and 5) comply with the principle of subsidiarity. The question that this paper tries to answer is to what extent the involvement of national parliaments in European policies brings a more humanitarian approach to the AFSJ? To do so, the paper relies on two theoretical concepts: that of frame and that of parliamentary scrutiny and one case study: the reform of the Schengen agreements proposed by the European Commission in September 2011. In a comparative perspective the paper analyzes how the French and the Italian parliamentarians scrutinized the reform mentioned above and what role do they play in the decision-making process.

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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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    Authors: Saki, Mohamed;

    International audience; The aim of this article is to show how rhetoric and critical thinking are intrinsically interrelated. I will explain why, in keeping with the history of the discipline itself, rhetoric can be a powerful tool for critical literacy. It can help raise our awareness of how social, political, ethical issues are always rhetorically constructed and why they are always the outcome of arbitration about the right linguistic and rhetorical choices to make in particular rhetorical situations. One of the basic epistemological tenets of this article is that, instead of confining ourselves to a single rhetorical theory, we can choose among the huge rhetorical heritage at our disposal to elaborate a coherent analytical framework to investigate the message conveyed by a text, be it oral, written, visual, or one that combines these three modes. In this article,I have drawn from Chaïm Perelman’s New Rhetoric and Kenneth Burke’s Dramatism to analyze a multi-semiotic document.

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    Deeds and Days
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Auel, Katrin; Rozenberg, Olivier; Tacea, Angela;

    There is an on-going debate in the literature as to whether national parliaments can and do play an active role in EU policy-making. The main reason for persistent disagreement is the lack of comparative empirical data on parliamentary behaviour in EU affairs. The article aims to contribute to this debate by presenting the first comparative quantitative data on European affairs activities of national parliaments and by explaining the empirical variation. The development of a unique dataset including all 27 national parliaments allows a series of explanatory variables to be tested for the level of parliamentary activity at both the committee and the plenary levels. The analysis shows that institutional strength in EU affairs plays an important role. Overall, however, EU activities can be better explained with a mix of institutional capacities and motivational incentives. The specific combinations vary for different types of activities.

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    West European Politics
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Guerra, Tristan; Gonthier, Frédéric; Alexandre, Chloé;