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  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2023-2023
  • US

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  • Authors: Daniel, Safadi; Oren S, Cohen; Joab, Chapman; Hanna, Rosenmann; +4 Authors

    The onset of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is usually around the age of 60, but younger patients have been described as well. Our study characterizes the demographic and clinical features of young-onset CJD patients.The CJD Israeli National Database was reviewed, and the patients were divided into groups of young (40-year-old) (Y|) and older disease onset (40-year-old) (O). Each group was further divided into sporadic (sCJD) and genetic (gCJD) patients. Clinical and demographic parameters were compared between the groups.The study included 731 patients (Y- 18 patients, O- 713 patients). MRI showed classical features more often in the older population (O-76.9%, Y-36%,Young-onset gCJD patients have unique disease features including less typical brain MRI changes, a lower prevalence of dementia, and a higher prevalence of cerebellar signs at disease onset.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Elizabeth Huber; Neva M. Corrigan; Vasily L. Yarnykh; Naja Ferjan Ramírez; +1 Authors

    Parental input is considered a key predictor of language achievement during the first years of life, yet relatively few studies have assessed the effects of parental language input and parent–infant interactions on early brain development. We examined the relationship between measures of parent and child language, obtained from naturalistic home recordings at child ages 6, 10, 14, 18, and 24 months, and estimates of white matter myelination, derived from quantitative MRI at age 2 years (mean = 26.30 months, SD = 1.62,N = 22). Analysis of the white matter focused on dorsal pathways associated with expressive language development and long-term language ability, namely, the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Frequency of parent–infant conversational turns (CT) uniquely predicted myelin density estimates in both the AF and SLF. Moreover, the effect of CT remained significant while controlling for total adult speech and child speech-related utterances, suggesting a specific role for interactive language experience, rather than simply speech exposure or production. An exploratory analysis of 18 additional tracts, including the right AF and SLF, indicated a high degree of anatomic specificity. Longitudinal analyses of parent and child language variables indicated an effect of CT as early as 6 months of age, as well as an ongoing effect over infancy. Together, these results link parent–infant conversational turns to white matter myelination at age 2 years, and suggest that early, interactive experiences with language uniquely contribute to the development of white matter associated with long-term language ability.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTChildren’s earliest experiences with language are thought to have profound and lasting developmental effects. Recent studies suggest that intervention can increase the quality of parental language input and improve children’s learning outcomes. However, important questions remain about the optimal timing of intervention, and the relationship between specific aspects of language experience and brain development. We report that parent–infant turn-taking during home language interactions correlates with myelination of language related white matter pathways through age 2 years. Effects were independent of total speech exposure and infant vocalizations and evident starting at 6 months of age, suggesting that structured language interactions throughout infancy may uniquely support the ongoing development of brain systems critical to long-term language ability.

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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2023
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2023
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2023
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2023
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Authors: Natalya V. Ponomareva; Tatiana V. Andreeva; Maria S. Protasova; Svetlana S. Kunizheva; +7 Authors

    The clusterin (CLU) rs11136000 CC genotype is a probable risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). CLU, also known as the apolipoprotein J gene, shares certain properties with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene with a well-established relationship with AD. This study aimed to determine whether the electrophysiological patterns of brain activation during the letter fluency task (LFT) depend on CLU genotypes in adults without dementia. Previous studies have shown that LFT performance involves activation of the frontal cortex. We examined EEG alpha1 and alpha2 band desynchronization in the frontal regions during the LFT in 94 nondemented individuals stratified by CLU (rs11136000) genotype. Starting at 30 years of age, CLU CC carriers exhibited more pronounced task-related alpha2 desynchronization than CLU CT&TT carriers in the absence of any differences in LFT performance. In CLU CC carriers, alpha2 desynchronization was significantly correlated with age. Increased task-related activation in individuals at genetic risk for AD may reflect greater “effort” to perform the task and/or neuronal hyperexcitability. The results show that the CLU genotype is associated with neuronal hyperactivation in the frontal cortex during cognitive tasks performances in nondemented individuals, suggesting systematic vulnerability of LFT related cognitive networks in people carrying unfavorable CLU alleles.

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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      International Journal of Molecular Sciences
      Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • Authors: Lara Basovic; Katherine Walsh; Catherine J. Chu;
    Neurologyarrow_drop_down
    Neurology
    Article . 2023
    Neurology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Neurologyarrow_drop_down
      Neurology
      Article . 2023
      Neurology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Filippo Abbondanza; Philip S. Dale; Carol A. Wang; Marianna E. Hayiou‐Thomas; +29 Authors

    Funding: Royal Society - UF150663, RGF\EA\180141; Wellcome Trust - 217065/Z/19/Z; H2020 European Research Council - 694189; NWO - 451-15-017; National Health and Medical Research Council - 1173896; Canadian Institute for Health Research - MOP-133440. Handedness has been studied for association with language-related disorders because of its link with language hemispheric dominance. No clear pattern has emerged, possibly because of small samples, publication bias, and heterogeneous criteria across studies. Non-right-handedness (NRH) frequency was assessed in N = 2503 cases with reading and/or language impairment and N = 4316 sex-matched controls identified from 10 distinct cohorts (age range 6–19 years old; European ethnicity) using a priori set criteria. A meta-analysis (Ncases = 1994) showed elevated NRH % in individuals with language/reading impairment compared with controls (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.06–1.39, p = .01). The association between reading/language impairments and NRH could result from shared pathways underlying brain lateralization, handedness, and cognitive functions. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2023
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    St Andrews Research Repository
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2023
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      St Andrews Research Repository
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
      Other literature type . 2023
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    Authors: Qihao Zhang; Chaofan Sui; Junghun Cho; Linfeng Yang; +6 Authors

    The objective of this study was to analyze the different brain oxygen metabolism statuses in preeclampsia using magnetic resonance imaging and investigate the factors that affect cerebral oxygen metabolism in preeclampsia.Forty-nine women with preeclampsia (mean age 32.4 years; range, 18-44 years), 22 pregnant healthy controls (PHCs) (mean age 30.7 years; range, 23-40 years), and 40 non-pregnant healthy controls (NPHCs) (mean age 32.5 years; range, 20-42 years) were included in this study. Brain oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) values were computed using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) plus quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent magnitude-based OEF mapping (QSM + quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent imaging or QQ) obtained with a 1.5-T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate the differences in OEF values in the brain regions among the groups.Among the three groups, the average OEF values were significantly different in multiple brain areas, including the parahippocampus, multiple gyri of the frontal lobe, calcarine, cuneus, and precuneus (allUsing whole-brain VBM analysis, we found that patients with preeclampsia had higher OEF values than controls.

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    Korean Journal of Radiology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
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      Korean Journal of Radiology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
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  • Authors: Roy Dayan; David Arkadir;
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    Authors: Abdolmahdi Bagheri; Mahdi Dehshiri; Yamin Bagheri; Alireza Akhondi-Asl; +1 Authors

    Neuroscientific studies aim to find an accurate and reliable brain Effective Connectome (EC). Although current EC discovery methods have contributed to our understanding of brain organization, their performances are severely constrained by the short sample size and poor temporal resolution of fMRI data, and high dimensionality of the brain connectome. By leveraging the DTI data as prior knowledge, we introduce two Bayesian causal discovery frameworks -the Bayesian GOLEM (BGOLEM) and Bayesian FGES (BFGES) methods- that offer significantly more accurate and reliable ECs and address the shortcomings of the existing causal discovery methods in discovering ECs based on only fMRI data. Moreover, to numerically assess the improvement in the accuracy of ECs with our method on empirical data, we introduce the Pseudo False Discovery Rate (PFDR) as a new computational accuracy metric for causal discovery in the brain. Through a series of simulation studies on synthetic and hybrid data (combining DTI from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) subjects and synthetic fMRI), we demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods and the reliability of the introduced metric in discovering ECs. By employing the PFDR metric, we show that our Bayesian methods lead to significantly more accurate results compared to the traditional methods when applied to the Human Connectome Project (HCP) data. Additionally, we measure the reproducibility of discovered ECs using the Rogers-Tanimoto index for test-retest data and show that our Bayesian methods provide significantly more reliable ECs than traditional methods. Overall, our study’s numerical and visual results highlight the potential for these frameworks to significantly advance our understanding of brain functionality.

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Weigard, A.; Matzke, Dora; Tanis, Charlotte; Heathcote, Andrew;

    The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal neuroimaging study of unprecedented scale that is in the process of following over 11,000 youth from middle childhood though age 20. However, a design feature of the study's stop-signal task violates "context independence", an assumption critical to current non-parametric methods for estimating stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), a key measure of inhibitory ability in the study. This has led some experts to call for the task to be changed and for previously collected data to be used with caution. We present a cognitive process modeling framework, the RDEX-ABCD model, that provides a parsimonious explanation for the impact of this design feature on “go” stimulus processing and successfully accounts for key behavioral trends in the ABCD data. Simulation studies using this model suggest that failing to account for the context independence violations in the ABCD design can lead to erroneous inferences in several realistic scenarios. However, we demonstrate that RDEX-ABCD effectively addresses these violations and can be used to accurately measure SSRT along with an array of additional mechanistic parameters of interest (e.g., attention to the stop signal, cognitive efficiency), advancing investigators’ ability to draw valid and nuanced inferences from ABCD data. Availability of data and materials: Data from the ABCD Study are available through the NIH Data Archive (NDA): nda.nih.gov/abcd. Code for all analyses featured in this study is openly available on the Open Science Framework (OSF): osf.io/2h8a7/.

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    Authors: Andrei, Rodionov; Recep A, Ozdemir; Christopher S Y, Benwell; Peter J, Fried; +6 Authors

    AbstractTheta burst stimulation (TBS) is a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation designed to induce changes of cortical excitability that outlast the period of TBS application. In this study, we explored the effects of continuous TBS (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS) versus sham TBS stimulation, applied to the left primary motor cortex, on modulation of resting state electroencephalography (rsEEG) power. We first conducted hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI) analyses examining changes in alpha (8–12 Hz) and beta (13–21 Hz) bands over the left and right motor cortex. Additionally, we performed data-driven whole-brain analyses across a wide range of frequencies (1–50 Hz) and all electrodes. Finally, we assessed the reliability of TBS effects across two sessions approximately 1 month apart. None of the protocols produced significant group-level effects in the ROI. Whole-brain analysis revealed that cTBS significantly enhanced relative power between 19 and 43 Hz over multiple sites in both hemispheres. However, these results were not reliable across visits. There were no significant differences between EEG modulation by active and sham TBS protocols. Between-visit reliability of TBS-induced neuromodulatory effects was generally low-to-moderate. We discuss confounding factors and potential approaches for improving the reliability of TBS-induced rsEEG modulation.

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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Scientific Reports
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  • Authors: Daniel, Safadi; Oren S, Cohen; Joab, Chapman; Hanna, Rosenmann; +4 Authors

    The onset of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is usually around the age of 60, but younger patients have been described as well. Our study characterizes the demographic and clinical features of young-onset CJD patients.The CJD Israeli National Database was reviewed, and the patients were divided into groups of young (40-year-old) (Y|) and older disease onset (40-year-old) (O). Each group was further divided into sporadic (sCJD) and genetic (gCJD) patients. Clinical and demographic parameters were compared between the groups.The study included 731 patients (Y- 18 patients, O- 713 patients). MRI showed classical features more often in the older population (O-76.9%, Y-36%,Young-onset gCJD patients have unique disease features including less typical brain MRI changes, a lower prevalence of dementia, and a higher prevalence of cerebellar signs at disease onset.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Elizabeth Huber; Neva M. Corrigan; Vasily L. Yarnykh; Naja Ferjan Ramírez; +1 Authors

    Parental input is considered a key predictor of language achievement during the first years of life, yet relatively few studies have assessed the effects of parental language input and parent–infant interactions on early brain development. We examined the relationship between measures of parent and child language, obtained from naturalistic home recordings at child ages 6, 10, 14, 18, and 24 months, and estimates of white matter myelination, derived from quantitative MRI at age 2 years (mean = 26.30 months, SD = 1.62,N = 22). Analysis of the white matter focused on dorsal pathways associated with expressive language development and long-term language ability, namely, the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Frequency of parent–infant conversational turns (CT) uniquely predicted myelin density estimates in both the AF and SLF. Moreover, the effect of CT remained significant while controlling for total adult speech and child speech-related utterances, suggesting a specific role for interactive language experience, rather than simply speech exposure or production. An exploratory analysis of 18 additional tracts, including the right AF and SLF, indicated a high degree of anatomic specificity. Longitudinal analyses of parent and child language variables indicated an effect of CT as early as 6 months of age, as well as an ongoing effect over infancy. Together, these results link parent–infant conversational turns to white matter myelination at age 2 years, and suggest that early, interactive experiences with language uniquely contribute to the development of white matter associated with long-term language ability.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTChildren’s earliest experiences with language are thought to have profound and lasting developmental effects. Recent studies suggest that intervention can increase the quality of parental language input and improve children’s learning outcomes. However, important questions remain about the optimal timing of intervention, and the relationship between specific aspects of language experience and brain development. We report that parent–infant turn-taking during home language interactions correlates with myelination of language related white matter pathways through age 2 years. Effects were independent of total speech exposure and infant vocalizations and evident starting at 6 months of age, suggesting that structured language interactions throughout infancy may uniquely support the ongoing development of brain systems critical to long-term language ability.

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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2023
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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . 2023
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      Journal of Neuroscience
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      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Natalya V. Ponomareva; Tatiana V. Andreeva; Maria S. Protasova; Svetlana S. Kunizheva; +7 Authors

    The clusterin (CLU) rs11136000 CC genotype is a probable risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). CLU, also known as the apolipoprotein J gene, shares certain properties with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene with a well-established relationship with AD. This study aimed to determine whether the electrophysiological patterns of brain activation during the letter fluency task (LFT) depend on CLU genotypes in adults without dementia. Previous studies have shown that LFT performance involves activation of the frontal cortex. We examined EEG alpha1 and alpha2 band desynchronization in the frontal regions during the LFT in 94 nondemented individuals stratified by CLU (rs11136000) genotype. Starting at 30 years of age, CLU CC carriers exhibited more pronounced task-related alpha2 desynchronization than CLU CT&TT carriers in the absence of any differences in LFT performance. In CLU CC carriers, alpha2 desynchronization was significantly correlated with age. Increased task-related activation in individuals at genetic risk for AD may reflect greater “effort” to perform the task and/or neuronal hyperexcitability. The results show that the CLU genotype is associated with neuronal hyperactivation in the frontal cortex during cognitive tasks performances in nondemented individuals, suggesting systematic vulnerability of LFT related cognitive networks in people carrying unfavorable CLU alleles.

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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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