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758 Research products

  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2023-2023
  • National Institutes of Health

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Elizabeth Huber; Neva M. Corrigan; Vasily L. Yarnykh; Naja Ferjan Ramírez; +1 Authors

    Parental input is considered a key predictor of language achievement during the first years of life, yet relatively few studies have assessed the effects of parental language input and parent–infant interactions on early brain development. We examined the relationship between measures of parent and child language, obtained from naturalistic home recordings at child ages 6, 10, 14, 18, and 24 months, and estimates of white matter myelination, derived from quantitative MRI at age 2 years (mean = 26.30 months, SD = 1.62,N = 22). Analysis of the white matter focused on dorsal pathways associated with expressive language development and long-term language ability, namely, the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Frequency of parent–infant conversational turns (CT) uniquely predicted myelin density estimates in both the AF and SLF. Moreover, the effect of CT remained significant while controlling for total adult speech and child speech-related utterances, suggesting a specific role for interactive language experience, rather than simply speech exposure or production. An exploratory analysis of 18 additional tracts, including the right AF and SLF, indicated a high degree of anatomic specificity. Longitudinal analyses of parent and child language variables indicated an effect of CT as early as 6 months of age, as well as an ongoing effect over infancy. Together, these results link parent–infant conversational turns to white matter myelination at age 2 years, and suggest that early, interactive experiences with language uniquely contribute to the development of white matter associated with long-term language ability.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTChildren’s earliest experiences with language are thought to have profound and lasting developmental effects. Recent studies suggest that intervention can increase the quality of parental language input and improve children’s learning outcomes. However, important questions remain about the optimal timing of intervention, and the relationship between specific aspects of language experience and brain development. We report that parent–infant turn-taking during home language interactions correlates with myelination of language related white matter pathways through age 2 years. Effects were independent of total speech exposure and infant vocalizations and evident starting at 6 months of age, suggesting that structured language interactions throughout infancy may uniquely support the ongoing development of brain systems critical to long-term language ability.

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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2023
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2023
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2023
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2023
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Authors: Weigard, A.; Matzke, Dora; Tanis, Charlotte; Heathcote, Andrew;

    The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal neuroimaging study of unprecedented scale that is in the process of following over 11,000 youth from middle childhood though age 20. However, a design feature of the study's stop-signal task violates "context independence", an assumption critical to current non-parametric methods for estimating stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), a key measure of inhibitory ability in the study. This has led some experts to call for the task to be changed and for previously collected data to be used with caution. We present a cognitive process modeling framework, the RDEX-ABCD model, that provides a parsimonious explanation for the impact of this design feature on “go” stimulus processing and successfully accounts for key behavioral trends in the ABCD data. Simulation studies using this model suggest that failing to account for the context independence violations in the ABCD design can lead to erroneous inferences in several realistic scenarios. However, we demonstrate that RDEX-ABCD effectively addresses these violations and can be used to accurately measure SSRT along with an array of additional mechanistic parameters of interest (e.g., attention to the stop signal, cognitive efficiency), advancing investigators’ ability to draw valid and nuanced inferences from ABCD data. Availability of data and materials: Data from the ABCD Study are available through the NIH Data Archive (NDA): nda.nih.gov/abcd. Code for all analyses featured in this study is openly available on the Open Science Framework (OSF): osf.io/2h8a7/.

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    Article . 2023
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    Authors: Andrei, Rodionov; Recep A, Ozdemir; Christopher S Y, Benwell; Peter J, Fried; +6 Authors

    AbstractTheta burst stimulation (TBS) is a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation designed to induce changes of cortical excitability that outlast the period of TBS application. In this study, we explored the effects of continuous TBS (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS) versus sham TBS stimulation, applied to the left primary motor cortex, on modulation of resting state electroencephalography (rsEEG) power. We first conducted hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI) analyses examining changes in alpha (8–12 Hz) and beta (13–21 Hz) bands over the left and right motor cortex. Additionally, we performed data-driven whole-brain analyses across a wide range of frequencies (1–50 Hz) and all electrodes. Finally, we assessed the reliability of TBS effects across two sessions approximately 1 month apart. None of the protocols produced significant group-level effects in the ROI. Whole-brain analysis revealed that cTBS significantly enhanced relative power between 19 and 43 Hz over multiple sites in both hemispheres. However, these results were not reliable across visits. There were no significant differences between EEG modulation by active and sham TBS protocols. Between-visit reliability of TBS-induced neuromodulatory effects was generally low-to-moderate. We discuss confounding factors and potential approaches for improving the reliability of TBS-induced rsEEG modulation.

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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hirschler, Lydiane; Sollmann, Nico; Schmitz‐Abecassis, Bárbara; Pinto, Joana; +37 Authors

    Preoperative clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols for gliomas, brain tumors with dismal outcomes due to their infiltrative properties, still rely on conventional structural MRI, which does not deliver information on tumor genotype and is limited in the delineation of diffuse gliomas. The GliMR COST action wants to raise awareness about the state of the art of advanced MRI techniques in gliomas and their possible clinical translation or lack thereof. This review describes current methods, limits, and applications of advanced MRI for the preoperative assessment of glioma, summarizing the level of clinical validation of different techniques. In this first part, we discuss dynamic susceptibility contrast and dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI, arterial spin labeling, diffusion‐weighted MRI, vessel imaging, and magnetic resonance fingerprinting. The second part of this review addresses magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical exchange saturation transfer, susceptibility‐weighted imaging, MRI‐PET, MR elastography, and MR‐based radiomics applications.Evidence Level: 3Technical Efficacy: Stage 2

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    Authors: Sierra L. Alban; Kirsten M. Lynch; John M. Ringman; Arthur W. Toga; +3 Authors

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) frequently occur in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and have a contribution from ischemia, though their relationship with β-amyloid and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is not completely understood. We used AT classification to categorize individuals based on their β-amyloid and tau pathologies, then assessed the effects of β-amyloid and tau on WMH volume and number. We then determined regions in which β-amyloid and WMH accumulation were related. Last, we analyzed the effects of various CVRFs on WMHs. As secondary analyses, we observed effects of age and sex differences, atrophy, cognitive scores, and APOE genotype. PET, MRI, FLAIR, demographic, and cardiovascular health data was collected from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI-3) (N = 287, 48 % male). Participants were categorized as A + and T + if their Florbetapir SUVR and Flortaucipir SUVR were above 0.79 and 1.25, respectively. WMHs were mapped on MRI using a deep convolutional neural network (Sepehrband et al., 2020). CVRF scores were based on history of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, BMI, and a cumulative score with 6 being the maximum score. Regression models and Pearson correlations were used to test associations and correlations between variables, respectively, with age, sex, years of education, and scanner manufacturer as covariates of no interest. WMH volume percent was significantly associated with global β-amyloid (r = 0.28, p < 0.001), but not tau (r = 0.05, p = 0.25). WMH volume percent was higher in individuals with either A + or T + pathology compared to controls, particularly within in the A+/T + group (p = 0.007, Cohen’s d = 0.4, t = -2.5). Individual CVRFs nor cumulative CVRF scores were associated with increased WMH volume. Finally, the regions where β-amyloid and WMH count were most positively associated were the middle temporal region in the right hemisphere (r = 0.18, p = 0.002) and the fusiform region in the left hemisphere (r = 0.017, p = 0.005). β-amyloid and WMH have a clear association, though the mechanism facilitating this association is still not fully understood. The associations found between β-amyloid and WMH burden emphasizes the relationship between β-amyloid and vascular lesion formation while factors like CVRFs, age, and sex affect AD development through various mechanisms. These findings highlight potential causes and mechanisms of AD as targets for future preventions and treatments. Going forward, a larger emphasis may be placed on β-amyloid’s vascular effects and the implications of impaired brain clearance in AD.

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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2023
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Smirnova, Lena; Morales Pantoja, Itzy E.; Hartung, Thomas;

    Understanding brain function remains challenging as work with human and animal models is complicated by compensatory mechanisms, while in vitro models have been too simple until now. With the advent of human stem cells and the bioengineering of brain microphysiological systems (MPS), understanding how both cognition and long-term memory arise is now coming into reach. We suggest combining cutting-edge AI with MPS research to spearhead organoid intelligence (OI) as synthetic biological intelligence. The vision is to realize cognitive functions in brain MPS and scale them to achieve relevant short- and long-term memory capabilities and basic information processing as the ultimate functional experimental models for neurodevelopment and neurological function and as cell-based assays for drug and chemical testing. By advancing the frontiers of biological computing, we aim to (a) create models of intelligence-in-a-dish to study the basis of human cognitive functions, (b) provide models to advance the search for toxicants contributing to neurological diseases and identify remedies for neurological maladies, and (c) achieve relevant biological computational capacities to complement traditional computing. Increased understanding of brain functionality, in some respects still superior to today’s supercomputers, may allow to imitate this in neuromorphic computer architectures or might even open up biological computing to complement silicon computers. At the same time, this raises ethical questions such as where sentience and consciousness start and what the relationship between a stem cell donor and the respective OI system is. Such ethical discussions will be critical for the socially acceptable advance of brain organoid models of cognition. published

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    ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ana A. Francisco; John J. Foxe; Sophie Molholm;

    Abstract22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical features, ranging from life-threatening to less severe conditions. One-third of individuals with the deletion live with mild to moderate intellectual disability; approximately 60% meet criteria for at least one psychiatric condition.22q11.2DS has become an important model for several medical, developmental, and psychiatric disorders. We have been particularly interested in understanding the risk for psychosis in this population: Approximately 30% of the individuals with the deletion go on to develop schizophrenia. The characterization of cognitive and neural differences between those individuals who develop schizophrenia and those who do not, despite being at genetic risk, holds important promise in what pertains to the clarification of paths to disease and to the development of tools for early identification and intervention.Here, we review our previous event-related potential (ERP) findings as potential markers for 22q11.2DS and the associated risk for psychosis, while discussing others’ work. We focus on auditory processing (auditory-evoked potentials, auditory adaptation, and auditory sensory memory), visual processing (visual-evoked potentials and visual adaptation), and inhibition and error monitoring.The findings discussed suggest basic mechanistic and disease process effects on neural processing in 22q11.2DS that are present in both early sensory and later cognitive processing, with possible implications for phenotype. In early sensory processes, both during auditory and visual processing, two mechanisms that impact neural responses in opposite ways seem to coexist—one related to the deletion, which increases brain responses; another linked to psychosis, decreasing neural activity. Later, higher-order cognitive processes may be equally relevant as markers for psychosis. More specifically, we argue that components related to error monitoring may hold particular promise in the study of risk for schizophrenia in the general population.

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    Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Arman Avesta; Sajid Hossain; MingDe Lin; Mariam Aboian; +2 Authors

    Deep-learning methods for auto-segmenting brain images either segment one slice of the image (2D), five consecutive slices of the image (2.5D), or an entire volume of the image (3D). Whether one approach is superior for auto-segmenting brain images is not known. We compared these three approaches (3D, 2.5D, and 2D) across three auto-segmentation models (capsule networks, UNets, and nnUNets) to segment brain structures. We used 3430 brain MRIs, acquired in a multi-institutional study, to train and test our models. We used the following performance metrics: segmentation accuracy, performance with limited training data, required computational memory, and computational speed during training and deployment. The 3D, 2.5D, and 2D approaches respectively gave the highest to lowest Dice scores across all models. 3D models maintained higher Dice scores when the training set size was decreased from 3199 MRIs down to 60 MRIs. 3D models converged 20% to 40% faster during training and were 30% to 50% faster during deployment. However, 3D models require 20 times more computational memory compared to 2.5D or 2D models. This study showed that 3D models are more accurate, maintain better performance with limited training data, and are faster to train and deploy. However, 3D models require more computational memory compared to 2.5D or 2D models.

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    Bioengineering
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Bioengineering
    Article . 2022
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      Bioengineering
      Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Bioengineering
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    Authors: Huguenard, Claire J. C.; Cseresznye, Adam; Evans, James E.; Darcey, Teresa; +9 Authors

    Background\ud The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele, involved in fatty acid (FA) metabolism, is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study examined the influence of APOE genotypes on blood and brain markers of the L-carnitine system, necessary for fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and their collective influence on the clinical and pathological outcomes of AD.\ud \ud Methods\ud L-carnitine, its metabolites γ-butyrobetaine (GBB) and trimethylamine-n-oxide (TMAO), and its esters (acylcarnitines) were analyzed in blood from predominantly White community/clinic-based individuals (n = 372) and plasma and brain (n = 79) from the Religious Order Study (ROS) using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).\ud \ud Findings\ud Relative to total blood acylcarnitines, levels of short chain acylcarnitines (SCAs) were higher whereas long chain acylcarnitines (LCAs) were lower in AD, which was observed preclinically in APOE ε4s. Plasma medium chain acylcarnitines (MCAs) were higher amongst cognitively healthy APOE ε2 carriers relative to other genotypes. Compared to their respective controls, elevated TMAO and lower L-carnitine and GBB were associated with AD clinical diagnosis and these differences were detected at pre-clinically among APOE ε4 carriers. Plasma and brain GBB, TMAO, and acylcarnitines were also associated with post-mortem brain amyloid, tau, and cerebrovascular pathologies.\ud \ud Interpretation\ud Alterations of blood L-carnitine, GBB, TMAO and acylcarnitines occur early in clinical AD progression and are influenced by APOE genotype. These changes correlate with post-mortem brain AD and cerebrovascular pathologies. Additional studies are required to better understand the role of the FAO disturbances in AD.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Current Research in Translational Medicine
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Current Research in Translational Medicine
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    Authors: Eleonora Maggioni; Maria G. Rossetti; Nicholas B. Allen; Albert Batalla; +22 Authors

    AbstractEmerging evidence suggests distinct neurobiological correlates of alcohol use disorder (AUD) between sexes, which however remain largely unexplored. This work from ENIGMA Addiction Working Group aimed to characterize the sex differences in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) correlates of AUD using a whole‐brain, voxel‐based, multi‐tissue mega‐analytic approach, thereby extending our recent surface‐based region of interest findings on a nearly matching sample using a complementary methodological approach. T1‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 653 people with AUD and 326 controls was analyzed using voxel‐based morphometry. The effects of group, sex, group‐by‐sex, and substance use severity in AUD on brain volumes were assessed using General Linear Models. Individuals with AUD relative to controls had lower GM volume in striatal, thalamic, cerebellar, and widespread cortical clusters. Group‐by‐sex effects were found in cerebellar GM and WM volumes, which were more affected by AUD in females than males. Smaller group‐by‐sex effects were also found in frontotemporal WM tracts, which were more affected in AUD females, and in temporo‐occipital and midcingulate GM volumes, which were more affected in AUD males. AUD females but not males showed a negative association between monthly drinks and precentral GM volume. Our results suggest that AUD is associated with both shared and distinct widespread effects on GM and WM volumes in females and males. This evidence advances our previous region of interest knowledge, supporting the usefulness of adopting an exploratory perspective and the need to include sex as a relevant moderator variable in AUD.

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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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    Human Brain Mapping
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ACU Research Bankarrow_drop_down
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      ACU Research Bank
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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      Human Brain Mapping
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Elizabeth Huber; Neva M. Corrigan; Vasily L. Yarnykh; Naja Ferjan Ramírez; +1 Authors

    Parental input is considered a key predictor of language achievement during the first years of life, yet relatively few studies have assessed the effects of parental language input and parent–infant interactions on early brain development. We examined the relationship between measures of parent and child language, obtained from naturalistic home recordings at child ages 6, 10, 14, 18, and 24 months, and estimates of white matter myelination, derived from quantitative MRI at age 2 years (mean = 26.30 months, SD = 1.62,N = 22). Analysis of the white matter focused on dorsal pathways associated with expressive language development and long-term language ability, namely, the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Frequency of parent–infant conversational turns (CT) uniquely predicted myelin density estimates in both the AF and SLF. Moreover, the effect of CT remained significant while controlling for total adult speech and child speech-related utterances, suggesting a specific role for interactive language experience, rather than simply speech exposure or production. An exploratory analysis of 18 additional tracts, including the right AF and SLF, indicated a high degree of anatomic specificity. Longitudinal analyses of parent and child language variables indicated an effect of CT as early as 6 months of age, as well as an ongoing effect over infancy. Together, these results link parent–infant conversational turns to white matter myelination at age 2 years, and suggest that early, interactive experiences with language uniquely contribute to the development of white matter associated with long-term language ability.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTChildren’s earliest experiences with language are thought to have profound and lasting developmental effects. Recent studies suggest that intervention can increase the quality of parental language input and improve children’s learning outcomes. However, important questions remain about the optimal timing of intervention, and the relationship between specific aspects of language experience and brain development. We report that parent–infant turn-taking during home language interactions correlates with myelination of language related white matter pathways through age 2 years. Effects were independent of total speech exposure and infant vocalizations and evident starting at 6 months of age, suggesting that structured language interactions throughout infancy may uniquely support the ongoing development of brain systems critical to long-term language ability.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2023
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2023
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2023
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2023
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Weigard, A.; Matzke, Dora; Tanis, Charlotte; Heathcote, Andrew;

    The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal neuroimaging study of unprecedented scale that is in the process of following over 11,000 youth from middle childhood though age 20. However, a design feature of the study's stop-signal task violates "context independence", an assumption critical to current non-parametric methods for estimating stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), a key measure of inhibitory ability in the study. This has led some experts to call for the task to be changed and for previously collected data to be used with caution. We present a cognitive process modeling framework, the RDEX-ABCD model, that provides a parsimonious explanation for the impact of this design feature on “go” stimulus processing and successfully accounts for key behavioral trends in the ABCD data. Simulation studies using this model suggest that failing to account for the context independence violations in the ABCD design can lead to erroneous inferences in several realistic scenarios. However, we demonstrate that RDEX-ABCD effectively addresses these violations and can be used to accurately measure SSRT along with an array of additional mechanistic parameters of interest (e.g., attention to the stop signal, cognitive efficiency), advancing investigators’ ability to draw valid and nuanced inferences from ABCD data. Availability of data and materials: Data from the ABCD Study are available through the NIH Data Archive (NDA): nda.nih.gov/abcd. Code for all analyses featured in this study is openly available on the Open Science Framework (OSF): osf.io/2h8a7/.

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    NARCIS
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: NARCIS
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