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210 Research products

  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2023-2023
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Faghihe Massaeli; Mohammad Bagheri; Sarah D Power;

    Abstract Objective. A passive brain–computer interface (pBCI) is a system that enhances a human–machine interaction by monitoring the mental state of the user and, based on this implicit information, making appropriate modifications to the interaction. Key to the development of such a system is the ability to reliably detect the mental state of interest via neural signals. Many different mental states have been investigated, including fatigue, attention and various emotions, however one of the most commonly studied states is mental workload, i.e. the amount of attentional resources required to perform a task. The emphasis of mental workload studies to date has been almost exclusively on detecting and predicting the ‘level’ of cognitive resources required (e.g. high vs. low), but we argue that having information regarding the specific ‘type’ of resources (e.g. visual or auditory) would allow the pBCI to apply more suitable adaption techniques than would be possible knowing just the overall workload level. Approach. 15 participants performed carefully designed visual and auditory tasks while electroencephalography (EEG) data was recorded. The tasks were designed to be as similar as possible to one another except for the type of attentional resources required. The tasks were performed at two different levels of demand. Using traditional machine learning algorithms, we investigated, firstly, if EEG can be used to distinguish between auditory and visual processing tasks and, secondly, what effect level of sensory processing demand has on the ability to distinguish between auditory and visual processing tasks. Main results. The results show that at the high level of demand, the auditory vs. visual processing tasks could be distinguished with an accuracy of 77.1% on average. However, in the low demand condition in this experiment, the tasks were not classified with an accuracy exceeding chance. Significance. These results support the feasibility of developing a pBCI for detecting not only the level, but also the type, of attentional resources being required of the user at a given time. Further research is required to determine if there is a threshold of demand under which the type of sensory processing cannot be detected, but even if that is the case, these results are still promising since it is the high end of demand that is of most concern in safety critical scenarios. Such a BCI could help improve safety in high risk occupations by initiating the most effective and efficient possible adaptation strategies when high workload conditions are detected.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Neural En...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Neural Engineering
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Neural En...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Neural Engineering
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Beatrice P. De Koninck; Daphnée Brazeau; Samuel Guay; Alberto Herrero Babiloni; +1 Authors

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been one of numerous investigation methods used for their potential to modulate brain oscillations; however, such investigations have given contradictory results and a lack of standardization.In this systematic review, we aimed to assess the potential of tACS to modulate alpha spectral power. The secondary outcome was the identification of tACS methodologic key parameters, adverse effects, and sensations.Studies in healthy adults who were receiving active and sham tACS intervention or any differential condition were included. The main outcome assessed was the increase/decrease of alpha spectral power through either electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography. Secondary outcomes were methodologic parameters, sensation reporting, and adverse effects. Risks of bias and the study quality were assessed with the Cochrane assessment tool.We obtained 1429 references, and 20 met the selection criteria. A statistically significant alpha-power increase was observed in nine studies using continuous tACS stimulation and two using intermittent tACS stimulation set at a frequency within the alpha range. A statistically significant alpha-power increase was observed in three more studies using a stimulation frequency outside the alpha range. Heterogeneity among stimulation parameters was recognized. Reported adverse effects were mild. The implementation of double blind was identified as challenging using tACS, in part owing to electrical artifacts generated by stimulation on the recorded signal.Most assessed studies reported that tACS has the potential to modulate brain alpha power. The optimization of this noninvasive brain stimulation method is of interest mostly for its potential clinical applications with neurological conditions associated with perturbations in alpha brain activity. However, more research efforts are needed to standardize optimal parameters to achieve lasting modulation effects, develop methodologic alternatives to reduce experimental bias, and improve the quality of studies using tACS to modulate brain activity.

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    Neuromodulation Technology at the Neural Interface
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Neuromodulation Tech...arrow_drop_down
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      Neuromodulation Technology at the Neural Interface
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kevin B. Smith; Michael Murack; Nafissa Ismail;

    Illness is often predicated long before the manifestation of its symptoms. Exposure to stressful experiences particularly during critical periods of development, such as puberty and adolescence, can induce various physical and mental illnesses. Puberty is a critical period of maturation for neuroendocrine systems, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. Exposure to adverse experiences during puberty can impede normal brain reorganizing and remodelling and result in enduring consequences on brain functioning and behaviour. Stress responsivity differs between the sexes during the pubertal period. This sex difference is partly due to differences in circulating sex hormones between males and females, impacting stress and immune responses differently. The effects of stress during puberty on physical and mental health remains under-examined. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most recent findings pertaining to age and sex differences in HPA axis, HPG axis, and immune system development, and describe how disruption in the functioning of these systems can propagate disease. Lastly, we delve into the notable neuroimmune contributions, sex differences, and the mediating role of the gut microbiome on stress and health outcomes. Understanding the enduring consequences of adverse experiences during puberty on physical and mental health will allow a greater proficiency in treating and preventing stress-related diseases early in development.

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    Brain Research Bulletin
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Brain Research Bulle...arrow_drop_down
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      Brain Research Bulletin
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Marcus C. Ng; Hussam El-Alawi; Darion Toutant; Eun Hyung Choi; +4 Authors

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a life-threatening emergency with high mortality and poor functional outcomes in survivors. Treatment is typically limited to intravenous anesthetic infusions and multiple anti-seizure medications. While ongoing seizures can cause permanent neurological damage, medical therapies also pose severe and life-threatening side effects. We tested the feasibility of using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (hd-tDCS) in the treatment of RSE. We conducted 20-min hd-tDCS sessions at an outward field orientation, intensity of 2-mA, 4 + 1 channels, and customized for deployment over the electrographic maximum of epileptiform activity ("spikes") determined by real-time clinical EEG monitoring. There were no adverse events from 32 hd-tDCS sessions in 10 RSE patients. Over steady dosing states of infusions and medications in 29 included sessions, median spike rates/patient fell by 50% during hd-tDCS on both automated (p = 0.0069) and human (p = 0.0277) spike counting. Median spike rates for any given stimulation session also fell by 50% during hd-tDCS on automated spike counting (p = 0.0032). Immediately after hd-tDCS, median spike rates/patient remained down by 25% on human spike counting (p = 0.018). Compared to historical controls, hd-tDCS subjects were successfully discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) 45.8% more often (p = 0.004). When controls were selected using propensity score matching, the discharge rate advantage improved to 55% (p = 0.002). Customized EEG electrode targeting of hd-tDCS is a safe and non-invasive method of hyperacutely reducing epileptiform activity in RSE. Compared to historical controls, there was evidence of a cumulative chronic clinical response with more hd-tDCS subjects discharged from ICU.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Neurotherapeuticsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Neurotherapeutics
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Neurotherapeuticsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Neurotherapeutics
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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    The strength of a fear memory significantly influences whether it drives adaptive or maladaptive behavior in the future. Yet, how mild and strong fear memories differ in underlying biology is not well understood. We hypothesized that this distinction may not be exclusively the result of changes within specific brain regions, but rather the outcome of collective changes in connectivity across multiple regions within the neural network. To test this, rats were fear conditioned in protocols of varying intensities to generate mild or strong memories. Neuronal activation driven by recall was measured using c-fos immunohistochemistry in 12 brain regions implicated in fear learning and memory. The interregional coordinated brain activity was computed and graph-based functional networks were generated to compare how mild and strong fear memories differ at the systems level. Our results show that mild fear recall is supported by a well-connected brain network with small-world properties in which the amygdala is well-positioned to be modulated by other regions. In contrast, this connectivity is disrupted in strong fear memories and the amygdala is isolated from other regions. These findings indicate that the neural systems underlying mild and strong fear memories differ, with implications for understanding and treating disorders of fear dysregulation.Remembering the fear that arose during a dangerous experience is important as it teaches us to avoid similar circumstances in the future. The intensity of the initial experience will often influence the strength of the memory. Milder memories often lead to responses that protect individuals from harm (known as adaptive behaviors). However, stronger memories of more traumatic experiences can sometimes trigger disproportionate responses to a situation (known as maladaptive behaviors), such as in individuals with phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Forming and retrieving fear memories requires different parts of the brain to work together and send signals to one another. At the core of this network is the amygdala (also known as the fear center of the brain), which other brain regions then feed into to modulate the fear response to ensure it is appropriate and manageable. However, it remained unclear whether neurons in these brain regions wire together differently when recalling mild or more severe fear memories. Identifying these differences may help explain why certain fear memories lead to adaptive behaviors, while others result in maladaptive ones. To investigate this question, Haubrich and Nader generated fear memories in rats that triggered either mild fear responses or strong responses akin to trauma. Imaging tools were then used to measure the activity and connections between neurons across 12 regions of the brain known to be involved in remembering fearful experiences. This revealed that recalling mild fear memories resulted in a well-coordinated network of neurons which could effectively send information between the different brain regions. In contrast, severe fear memories led to disrupted overall connectivity, with the amygdala becoming disconnected from the other brain regions. The results reveal stark contrasts in the pattern of neuronal connections formed by mild and severe fear memories. Investigating the specific pathways involved in these differences will allow scientists to gain a better understanding of why memories of traumatic experiences can lead to maladaptive behaviors, including those formed as a result of PTSD.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eLifearrow_drop_down
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    eLife
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    eLife
    Article . 2023
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    eLife
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.7554/elife....
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.7554/elife....
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      eLife
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      eLife
      Article . 2023
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      eLife
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.7554/elife....
      Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.7554/elife....
      Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Vladimir Kazakov; Enrico Olivucci;

    We propose a broad class of $d$-dimensional conformal field theories of $SU(N)$ adjoint scalar fields generalising the 4$d$ Fishnet CFT (FCFT) discovered by \"O. G\"urdogan and one of the authors as a special limit of $\gamma$-deformed $\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory. In the planar $N\to\infty $ limit the FCFTs are dominated by the ``fishnet" planar Feynman graphs. These graphs are explicitly integrable, as was shown long ago by A. Zamolodchikov. The Zamolodchikov's construction, based on the dual Baxter lattice (straight lines on the plane intersecting at arbitrary slopes) and the star-triangle identities, can serve as a ``loom" for ``weaving" the Feynman graphs of these FCFTs, with certain types of propagators, at any $d$. The Baxter lattice with $M$ different slopes and any number of lines parallel to those, generates an FCFT consisting of $M(M-1)$ fields and a certain number of chiral vertices of different valences with distinguished couplings. These non-unitary, logarithmic CFTs enjoy certain reality properties for their spectrum due to a symmetry similar to the PT-invariance of non-hermitian hamiltonians proposed by C. Bender. We discuss in more detail the theories generated by a loom with $M=2,3,4$, and the generalisation of the loom FCFTs for spinning fields in 4$d$. Comment: 35 pages, 21 figures

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    Journal of High Energy Physics
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
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      Journal of High Energy Physics
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Matthew R. Krause; Pedro G. Vieira; Christopher C. Pack;

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is one of the oldest and yet least understood forms of brain stimulation. The idea that a weak electrical stimulus, applied outside the head, can meaningfully affect neural activity is often regarded as mysterious. Here, we argue that the direct effects of tES are not so mysterious: Extensive data from a wide range of model systems shows it has appreciable effects on the activity of individual neurons. Instead, the real mysteries are how tES interacts with the brain’s own activity and how these dynamics can be controlled to produce desirable therapeutic effects. These are challenging problems, akin to repairing a complex machine while it is running, but they are not unique to tES or even neuroscience. We suggest that models of coupled oscillators, a common tool for studying interactions in other fields, may provide valuable insights. By combining these tools with our growing, interdisciplinary knowledge of brain dynamics, we are now in a good position to make progress in this area and meet the high demand for effective neuromodulation in neuroscience and psychiatry.

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    PLoS Biology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS Biology
    Article . 2023
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      PLoS Biology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      PLoS Biology
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Chelsea L. White; Jonathan I. Bloch; Paul E. Morse; Mary T. Silcox;

    Paleogene microsyopid plesiadapiforms are among the oldest euarchontans known from relatively complete crania. While cranial endocasts are known for larger-bodied Eocene microsyopine microsyopids, this study documents the first virtual endocast for the more diminutive uintasoricine microsyopids, derived from a specimen of Niptomomys cf. Niptomomys doreenae (USNM 530198) from the late Paleocene of Wyoming. Size estimates of smaller-bodied uintasoricines are similar to those inferred for the common ancestor of Primates, so the virtual endocast of Niptomomys may provide a useful model to study early primate brain evolution. Due to the broken and telescoped nature of the neurocranium of USNM 530198, a μCT scan of the specimen was used to create a 3D model of multiple bone fragments that were then independently isolated, repositioned, and merged to form a cranial reconstruction from which a virtual endocast was extracted. The virtual endocast of Niptomomys has visible caudal colliculi, suggesting less caudal expansion of the cerebrum compared to that of euprimates, but similar to that of several other plesiadapiforms. The part of the endocast representing the olfactory bulbs is larger relative to overall endocast volume in Niptomomys (8.61%) than that of other known plesiadapiforms (∼5%) or euprimates (3.5%). The petrosal lobules (associated with visual stabilization) are relatively large for a Paleocene placental mammal (1.66%). The encephalization quotient of Niptomomys is relatively high (range = 0.35-0.85) compared to that of Microsyops (range = 0.32-0.52), with the upper estimates in the range of values calculated for early euprimates. However, this contrast likely relates in part to the small size of the taxon, and is not associated with evidence of neocortical expansion. These findings are consistent with a model of shifting emphasis in primate evolution toward functions of the cerebrum and away from olfaction with the origin of euprimates.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Human Evo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Human Evolution
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Human Evo...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Human Evolution
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Audrey Dureux; Alessandro Zanini; Janahan Selvanayagam; Ravi S. Menon; +1 Authors

    Theory of Mind (ToM) refers to the cognitive ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. This ability extends even to the attribution of mental states to animations featuring simple geometric shapes, such as the Frith-Happé animations in which two triangles move either purposelessly (Random condition), exhibit purely physical movement (Goal-directed condition), or move as if one triangle is reacting to the other triangle's mental states (ToM condition). While this capacity in humans has been thoroughly established, research on nonhuman primates has yielded inconsistent results. This study explored how marmosets (In our daily life, we often guess what other people are thinking or intending to do, based on their actions. This ability to ascribe thoughts, intentions or feelings to others is known as Theory of Mind. While we often use our Theory of Mind to understand other humans and interpret social interactions, we can also apply our Theory of Mind to assign feelings and thoughts to animals and even inanimate objects. For example, people watching a movie where the characters are represented by simple shapes, such as triangles, can still see a story unfold, because they infer the triangles’ intentions based on what they see on the screen. While it is clear that humans have a Theory of Mind, how the brain manages this capacity and whether other species have similar abilities remain open questions. Dureux et al. used animations showing abstract shapes engaging in social interactions and advanced brain imaging techniques to compare how humans and marmosets – a type of monkey that is very social and engages in shared childcare – interpret social cues. By comparing the eye movements and brain activity of marmosets to human responses, Dureux et al. wanted to uncover common strategies used by both species to understand social signals, and gain insight into how these strategies have evolved. Dureux et al. found that, like humans, marmosets seem to perceive a difference between shapes interacting socially and moving randomly. Not only did their gaze linger longer on certain shapes in the social scenario, but their brain activity also mirrored that of humans viewing the same scenes. This suggests that, like humans, marmosets possess an inherent ability to interpret social scenarios, even when they are presented in an abstract form, providing a fresh perspective on primates’ abilities to interpret social cues. The findings of Dureux et al. have broad implications for our understanding of human social behavior and could lead to the development of better communication strategies, especially for individuals social cognitive conditions, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder. However, further research will be needed to understand the neural processes underpinning the interpretation of social interactions. Dureux et al.’s research indicates that the marmoset monkey may be the ideal organism to perform this research on.

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    eLife
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    eLife
    Article . 2023
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      eLife
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      eLife
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kayla D. Bazzana‐Adams; David C. Evans; Joseph J. Bevitt; Robert R. Reisz;

    AbstractSeymouria is among the best‐known stem amniotes and holds an important phylogenetic position for discussions of amniote evolution. Previous work has focused primarily on the osteology of Seymouria, with recent interest turning to the application of computed tomography (CT) to study the internal features. We utilized neutron CT to reconstruct the first virtual cranial endocast and the first complete otic endocasts of Seymouria, revealing previously unrecognized details of its palaeoneuroanatomy. The brain and inner ear of Seymouria are largely plesiomorphic relative to later‐diverging crown amniotes, showing no indication of increased encephalization or braincase ossification. Our results also clarify the plesiomorphic condition for carotid artery morphology in amniotes, with Seymouria showing a similar condition to basal members of both the synapsid and sauropsid lineages. The reconstructed neuroanatomy also indicates that Seymouria did not possess any particular neuroanatomical specializations, despite the probable presence of an impedance matching hearing system.

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    Journal of Morphology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Morphology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Faghihe Massaeli; Mohammad Bagheri; Sarah D Power;

    Abstract Objective. A passive brain–computer interface (pBCI) is a system that enhances a human–machine interaction by monitoring the mental state of the user and, based on this implicit information, making appropriate modifications to the interaction. Key to the development of such a system is the ability to reliably detect the mental state of interest via neural signals. Many different mental states have been investigated, including fatigue, attention and various emotions, however one of the most commonly studied states is mental workload, i.e. the amount of attentional resources required to perform a task. The emphasis of mental workload studies to date has been almost exclusively on detecting and predicting the ‘level’ of cognitive resources required (e.g. high vs. low), but we argue that having information regarding the specific ‘type’ of resources (e.g. visual or auditory) would allow the pBCI to apply more suitable adaption techniques than would be possible knowing just the overall workload level. Approach. 15 participants performed carefully designed visual and auditory tasks while electroencephalography (EEG) data was recorded. The tasks were designed to be as similar as possible to one another except for the type of attentional resources required. The tasks were performed at two different levels of demand. Using traditional machine learning algorithms, we investigated, firstly, if EEG can be used to distinguish between auditory and visual processing tasks and, secondly, what effect level of sensory processing demand has on the ability to distinguish between auditory and visual processing tasks. Main results. The results show that at the high level of demand, the auditory vs. visual processing tasks could be distinguished with an accuracy of 77.1% on average. However, in the low demand condition in this experiment, the tasks were not classified with an accuracy exceeding chance. Significance. These results support the feasibility of developing a pBCI for detecting not only the level, but also the type, of attentional resources being required of the user at a given time. Further research is required to determine if there is a threshold of demand under which the type of sensory processing cannot be detected, but even if that is the case, these results are still promising since it is the high end of demand that is of most concern in safety critical scenarios. Such a BCI could help improve safety in high risk occupations by initiating the most effective and efficient possible adaptation strategies when high workload conditions are detected.

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    Journal of Neural Engineering
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Neural Engineering
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Beatrice P. De Koninck; Daphnée Brazeau; Samuel Guay; Alberto Herrero Babiloni; +1 Authors

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been one of numerous investigation methods used for their potential to modulate brain oscillations; however, such investigations have given contradictory results and a lack of standardization.In this systematic review, we aimed to assess the potential of tACS to modulate alpha spectral power. The secondary outcome was the identification of tACS methodologic key parameters, adverse effects, and sensations.Studies in healthy adults who were receiving active and sham tACS intervention or any differential condition were included. The main outcome assessed was the increase/decrease of alpha spectral power through either electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography. Secondary outcomes were methodologic parameters, sensation reporting, and adverse effects. Risks of bias and the study quality were assessed with the Cochrane assessment tool.We obtained 1429 references, and 20 met the selection criteria. A statistically significant alpha-power increase was observed in nine studies using continuous tACS stimulation and two using intermittent tACS stimulation set at a frequency within the alpha range. A statistically significant alpha-power increase was observed in three more studies using a stimulation frequency outside the alpha range. Heterogeneity among stimulation parameters was recognized. Reported adverse effects were mild. The implementation of double blind was identified as challenging using tACS, in part owing to electrical artifacts generated by stimulation on the recorded signal.Most assessed studies reported that tACS has the potential to modulate brain alpha power. The optimization of this noninvasive brain stimulation method is of interest mostly for its potential clinical applications with neurological conditions associated with perturbations in alpha brain activity. However, more research efforts are needed to standardize optimal parameters to achieve lasting modulation effects, develop methodologic alternatives to reduce experimental bias, and improve the quality of studies using tACS to modulate brain activity.

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    Neuromodulation Technology at the Neural Interface
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Neuromodulation Technology at the Neural Interface
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Kevin B. Smith; Michael Murack; Nafissa Ismail;

    Illness is often predicated long before the manifestation of its symptoms. Exposure to stressful experiences particularly during critical periods of development, such as puberty and adolescence, can induce various physical and mental illnesses. Puberty is a critical period of maturation for neuroendocrine systems, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. Exposure to adverse experiences during puberty can impede normal brain reorganizing and remodelling and result in enduring consequences on brain functioning and behaviour. Stress responsivity differs between the sexes during the pubertal period. This sex difference is partly due to differences in circulating sex hormones between males and females, impacting stress and immune responses differently. The effects of stress during puberty on physical and mental health remains under-examined. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most recent findings pertaining to age and sex differences in HPA axis, HPG axis, and immune system development, and describe how disruption in the functioning of these systems can propagate disease. Lastly, we delve into the notable neuroimmune contributions, sex differences, and the mediating role of the gut microbiome on stress and health outcomes. Understanding the enduring consequences of adverse experiences during puberty on physical and mental health will allow a greater proficiency in treating and preventing stress-related diseases early in development.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Brain Research Bulle...arrow_drop_down
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    Brain Research Bulletin
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Brain Research Bulle...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Brain Research Bulletin
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Crossref
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.