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Impact de la pollution harmonique sur les matériels de réseau

Authors: Frelin, Wilfried;

Impact de la pollution harmonique sur les matériels de réseau

Abstract

La prolifération sur les réseaux électriques de charges non linéaires entraîne une augmentation des taux de distorsion harmonique. Ces charges non linéaires présentes chez les industriels et les particuliers, conçues avec de l'électronique de puissance, absorbent des courants non sinusoïdaux. La présence d'harmoniques sur les réseaux de distribution va impacter tous les matériels connectés au réseau, que ce soit à court terme ou à long terme. L'objectif de cette thèse est de quantifier l'impact des harmoniques sur les matériels connectés au réseau. L'étude bibliographique réalisée au début de la thèse nous a permis de dégager deux matériels à étudier plus précisément : les câbles basse tension et les transformateurs de distribution. Dans un premier temps, nous étudions le comportement thermique des câbles basse tension en présence d'harmoniques. Les câbles étudiés possèdent un conducteur de neutre qui permet la circulation des harmoniques de rangs multiples de trois. Nous avons réalisé une modélisation par éléments finis des câbles en réalisant un couplage électromagnétique ? thermique. Les résultats obtenus sont comparés à des mesures. Dans un second temps, nous présentons une modélisation analytique de la résistance des enroulements d'un transformateur permettant d'estimer les pertes en présence d'harmoniques. Les performances de cette modélisation ont été confrontées à des mesures. Nous étudions ensuite l'impact des harmoniques sur le comportement thermique des transformateurs grâce à des simulations et des mesures réalisées sur un transformateur de distribution. Nous concluons par une discussion sur l'impact des harmoniques sur la durée de vie des transformateurs.

The proliferation of non linear loads on power grids causes an increase of harmonic distortion. Those non linear loads connected on industrial and public networks are based on power electronics and use non sinusoidal currents. Harmonics produce by these non linear loads will impact all materials connected on power grids, instantly or on the long view. The aim of this thesis is to quantify the impact of harmonics on power grid materials. The literature study performed at the beginning of thesis concludes that two materials have to be studied more accurately: the cables in low voltage distribution grid and the transformers. The first part deals with the impact of harmonics on the thermal behavior of low voltage cables. As low voltage cables with neutral conductor allow the circulation of third harmonic, they are treated with a special attention. A finite elements model, that combines the electromagnetic and the thermal behavior, is set up. The simulation results are compared with experimental measurements. In the second part, a theoretical model of the transformer winding resistance is developed. This analytical expression allows the estimation of the winding losses in presence of harmonics. The model is experimentally verified. The thermal behavior of transformers in presence of harmonics is then shown by simulations and measurements. A discussion about the harmonic impact on the lifetime finishes the works on transformers.

Country
France
Related Organizations
Keywords

Harmoniques, câble basse tension, Harmonics, [SPI.NRJ]Engineering Sciences [physics]/Electric power, low voltage cables, transformers, transformateur, [SPI.NRJ] Engineering Sciences [physics]/Electric power

46 references, page 1 of 5

[ 1 ] Adly A. Girgis, joseph W. Nims, John Jacomino, John G. Dalton and Anthony Bishop, Effect of voltage harmonics on the operation of solid-state relays in the industrial applications, IEEE transactions on industry applications, vol.28, n°5, September/October 1992.

[ 2 ] N.K. Medora and A. Kusko, Power harmonic problems at a plastics extrusion plant, Thirtieth IAS Annual Meeting, vol 3, 8-12 Oct 1995, pp 2726-2733.

[ 3 ] Guy Lemieux, Power system harmonic resonance-A documented case, IEEE Transactions on industry applications, Vol.26, N°3, mai/juin 1990.

[ 4 ] Thomas M. blooming, Capacitor failure analysis: a troubleshooting case study, IEEE, 2005.

[ 5 ] C.Bonnseng, C. Chompoo-inwai,V. Kinnares, K. Nakawiwat and P. Apiratikul, Failure analysis of dielectric of low voltage power capacitors due to related harmonic resonance effects, IEEE, 2001.

[ 6 ] G. C. Montanari and D. Fabiani, The effect of non-sinusoidal aging of cable and capacitor insulating materials, IEEE Transactions on dielectrics and electrical insulation, Vol.6 n°6, December 1999.

[ 7 ] A. Cavalini, I. Ghinello, G. Mazzanti and G.C. Montanari, Accelerated capacitor degradation due to nonsinusoidal voltage supply and reliability of unsulation systems, IEEE, 1998.

[ 8 ] A. Cavalini, D. Fabiani , G. Mazzanti, G.C. Montanari and A. Contin, Voltage endurance of electrical components supplied by distorted voltage waveforms, Conference records of the 2000 IEEE International Symposium on electrical insulation, Anaheim CA USA, April 2-5, 2000.

[ 9 ] A.R. Al-Zyoud, A. Khraiwish, M. Shakarchi, Protective relays performance in a harmonic environment, Proceeding of the 41st international universities power engineering conference, 6-8 Sept. 2006.

[ 10 ] M.A.S. Masoum, S.M. Islam, K. Tan and N.X. tung, Impact of harmonics on tripping time of overcurrent relays, Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference AUPEC 2007, 9-12 Dec. 2007.

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    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
0
Average
Average
Average
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