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Développement d'un gyromètre à atomes froids de haute sensibilité fondé sur une géométrie repliée

Authors: Lévèque, Thomas;

Développement d'un gyromètre à atomes froids de haute sensibilité fondé sur une géométrie repliée

Abstract

Depuis les premières expériences de principe, l'interférométrie atomique a connu un essor important lié notamment à la maîtrise des processus de refroidissement d'atomes par laser et à l'utilisation de transitions cohérentes à deux photons pour les manipuler. Nous présentons dans ce manuscrit le développement d'un gyromètre atomique à effet Sagnac de haute sensibilité fondé sur une configuration repliée. Les choix expérimentaux réalisés lors de la conception de ce nouvel appareil ont été guidés par l'étude d'un premier prototype afin de repousser ses limites techniques. La première partie du travail a consisté en la caractérisation du premier gyromètre et à l'étude de ses performances limites liées à la fluctuation du biais introduit par les défauts de front d'onde du faisceau Raman. Cet appareil nous a également permis de mettre en place une méthode de mesure utilisant un sismomètre pour mesurer puis soustraire les accélérations parasites du signal de l'interféromètre assurant ainsi un niveau de sensibilité intéressant dans un environnement perturbé. L'étude s'est ensuite portée sur le test de nouvelles séparatrices atomiques en double-diffraction permettant d'accroître l'aire d'un interféromètre. La dernière partie de ce travail s'est concentrée sur le développement d'un nouveau prototype. Nous présentons ici les résultats préliminaires de cette expérience fondée sur une configuration à 4 impulsions Raman stimulées. Cette première caractérisation ouvre la voie à des mesures atteignant des niveaux de sensibilité inégalés pour ce type de capteurs.

Since the first proof-of-principle experiments, atom interferometry has developed rapidly thanks to the mastery of the techniques of laser cooling and of coherent two-photon transitions for manipulating the atoms. In this manuscript we present the development of a high-sensitivity Sagnac atomic gyroscope based on a "folded" configuration. The design of this new prototype was guided by the lessons learnt in the study of a first apparatus. The first part of this work consisted in the characterization of the first gyroscope and the study of its limits, in particular the bias fluctuations induced by the Raman laser beam wavefront distortions. This phase also included the development of a method using a seismometer to measure parasitic accelerations and then correcting for their effects on the interferometer signal, achieving good sensitivities even in noisy environments. Next, a new double-diffraction atomic beam splitter was developed and tested, allowing a significant increase of the area of an atom interferometer. The final phase of this work concentrated on the realization of the new gyroscope. We present the preliminary results of this experiment, based on a configuration using four stimulated Raman pulses. The initial characterization of the device confirms its promise for reaching higher sensitivities than ever before achieved for this type of sensor.

Country
France
Keywords

gyroscope, inertial sensor, [PHYS.PHYS.PHYS-ATOM-PH]Physics [physics]/Physics [physics]/Atomic Physics [physics.atom-ph], transitions Raman stimulées, atomes froids, effet Sagnac, Atom interferometry, cold atoms, Interférométrie atomique, gyromètre, capteur inertiel, [PHYS.PHYS.PHYS-ATOM-PH] Physics [physics]/Physics [physics]/Atomic Physics [physics.atom-ph], Sagnac effect, stimulated Raman transitions

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    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
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